Reading Passage 1:Tea and the Industrial Revolution

Questions 1-7: (List of Headings)

[To find answers for List of Headings, check the first and (occasionally) the last few lines of each paragraph. Most of the time, the answer is there for you containing some synonymous words, which have a match with the lists of headings. If you cannot find the answers in the first and last few lines, you may need to check the middle of the paragraphs. This we did in other tests too.]

Question 1: Paragraph A

The answer can be found in the last lines of paragraph A. Here, the author asks, “Why did this particular Big Bang-the world-changing birth of industry – happen in Britain? And why did it strike at the end of the 18 century?” These questions give us the hint about the place and the time of Industrial Revolution.

So, the answer is: iv (The time and place of the Industrial Revolution)

Question 2: Paragraph B

The answer can be found in paragraph B, lines 1-2 says, “There are about 20 different factors and all of them need to be present before the revolution can happen.” Then the writer mention the factors such as technology, power, cheap labour, easy transportation, market-driven economy, political system etc.  All of these factors are the conditions required for Industrial Revolution.

So, the answer is: viii (Conditions required for industrialisation)

Question 3: Paragraph C

The answer is found in paragraph C, lines 1 and 2 mentions the missing conditions or factors, “Tea  and  beer,  two  of  the  nation’s  favorite  drinks,  fueled  the revolution.” Then the author explains why they were the keys or important factors, “The antiseptic properties of tannin, the active ingredient in tea, and of hops in beer – plus the fact that both are made with boiled water – allowed urban communities to flourish at close quarters without succumbing to water-borne diseases such as dysentery.”

So, the answer is: vii (Two keys to Britain’s industrial revolution)                       

Question 4: Paragraph D

In the first lines of paragraph D the writer says, “Macfarlane had wondered for a long time how the Industrial Revolution came about.” This line suggests that Macfarlane was searching the reason behind the revolution. Then in lines 3-4, the writer says, “Between about 1650 and 1740, the population in Britain was static. But then there was a burst in population growth.” Then in the following lines he lists four questions which were suggested as causes of this burst.

So, the answer is: i (The search for the reasons for an increase in population)               

Question 5: Paragraph E

In paragraph E lines 7-11, the author mentions, “For a long time, the English were protected by the strong antibacterial agent in hops, which were added to help preserve the beer. But in the late 17th century a tax was introduced on malt, the basic ingredient of beer. The poor turned to water and gin and in the 1720s, the mortality rate began to rise again. Then it suddenly dropped again.”  This means that the English changed their habit of drinking, which, in return, changed the mortality rate too.

So, the answer is: vi (Changes in drinking habits in Britain)                   

Question 6: Paragraph F

Paragraph F starts with the line, “Macfarlane looked to Japan, . .. .” Then in the following lines we find a comparison between Japan and Britain. … . “Water-borne disease had a much looser grip on the Japanese population than those in Britain.” Thus Macfarlane was able to find out that “. .. . . the history of tea in Britain provided an extraordinary coincidence of dates”.

So, the answer is: ix (Comparisons with Japan lead to the answer)

Question 7: Paragraph G

The answer is in lines 3-5 where the author says, “ . .. .  it had turned its back on the essence of any work-based revolution by giving up labour-saving devices such as animals, afraid that they would put people out of work.” This means fear of unemployment because of industrialisation.

So, the answer is: ii (Industrialisation and the fear of unemployment)

Questions 8-13: TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN

In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the account in the text- TRUE
The statement in the question contradicts the account in the text- FALSE
The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN

[For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question 8: China’s transport system was not suitable for industry in the 18th century.

Keywords for the answer: China, transport, not suitable, 18th century

Though the writer mentions the country China in paragraphs B and F, and China and the 18th century are also mentioned in Paragraph F; we cannot find any mention of the transport system in China anywhere in the paragraphs.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 9: Tea and beer both helped to prevent dysentery in Britain.

Keywords for these answers: tea, beer, both, helped, prevent dysentery

Remember reading lines from Paragraph C for list of headings?

“The antiseptic properties of tannin, the active ingredient in tea, and of hops in beer – plus the fact that both are made with boiled water – allowed urban communities to flourish at close quarters without succumbing to water-borne diseases such as dysentery.”  These lines suggest that antiseptic properties in tea and beer helped to prevent dysentery in urban communities though they lived in close quarters.

So, the answer is: TRUE

Question 10: Roy Porter disagrees with Professor Macfarlane’s findings.

Keywords for this answer:  Roy Porter, disagree, Macfarlane

At the end of paragraph C, the author says, “Macfarlane’s case has been strengthened by support from notable quarters- Roy  Porter…. . .. . ”.  This line suggests that Roy Porter agreed and supported Professor Macfarlane’s findings. The statement contradicts the question.

So, the answer is: FALSE

Question 11: After 1740, there was a reduction in population in Britain.

Keywords for this answer:  After 1740, reduction, population, Britain

In paragraph D, lines 3-4 say, “Between 1650 and 1740, the population in Britain was static. But then there was a burst in population growth.” This means that after 1740, there was a huge increase in population in Britain. The statement contradicts the question.

So, the answer is: FALSE

Question 12: People in Britain used to make beer at home.

Keywords for this answer:  Britain, make beer, at home

Though drinking beer is mentioned in paragraphs C and E, there is no such information that makes it clear to understand that people in Britain used to make beer at their homes.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 13: The tax on malt indirectly caused a rise in the death rate.

Keywords for this answer:  tax on malt, indirectly caused, rise, death rate

We find the mention of tax and death rate at the end of paragraph E, “But in the late 17 century, a tax was introduced on malt, the basic ingredient of beer. The poor turned to water and gin and in the 1720s the mortality rate began to rise again.” This clearly suggests that the introduction of tax on malt led poor people to stop drinking beer and started to drink water and gin, which caused a rise in the mortality rate/death rate.

So, the answer is: TRUE

Reading Passage 2: Gifted children and learning

Questions 14-17 (Identifying information):

[This question asks you to find information from the passage and write the number of the paragraph (A, B, C or D … .. ) in the answer sheet. Now, if the question is given in the very first part of the question set, I’d request you not to answer them. It’s mainly because this question will not follow any sequence, and so it will surely kill your time. Rather, you should answer all the other questions first. For this passage, first answer question 4- 13. After finishing with these questions, come to question 1-3. And just like List of Headings, only read the first two lines or last two lines of the expected paragraph initially. If you find the answers, you need not read the middle part. If you don’t find answers yet, you can skim the middle part of the paragraph. Keywords will be a useful matter here.]

Question 14: a reference to the influence of the domestic background on the gifted child.

Keywords for this question:  influence, domestic background, gifted child

In paragraph A, the author mentions the importance of ‘home educational provision’ and ‘reported verbal interactions with parents, number of books and activities in their home etc.’ Take a look at the lines 4-6, “For example, a very close positive relationship was found when children’s IQ scores were compared with their home educational provision (Freeman, 2010)”. These suggest the fact that home or domestic background of a gifted child has a great influence on him/her.

So, the answer is: A

Question 15: reference to what can be lost if learners are given too much guidance

Keywords for this question:  what can be lost, learners given, too much guidance

Look at lines 2-3 of paragraph D. The author says, “Conversely, teachers who have a tendency to ‘overdirect’ can diminish their gifted pupils’ learning autonomy.” The line means that if a gifted child is ‘overdirected’ / given too much guidance by their teachers, the gifted pupils’/ learners’ autonomy / independence is badly affected.

So, the answer is: D

Question 16: a reference to the damaging effects of anxiety

Keywords for this question:  effects, anxiety

In paragraph F, the author directly argues in lines 3-5, “Fear, for example, can limit the development of curiosity, which is a strong force in scientific advance, because it motivates problem-solving behaviour.”  So, fear (synonymous to anxiety) has negative effects on the development of curiosity.

So, the answer is: F

Question 17: examples of classroom techniques which favour socially-disadvantaged children

Keywords for this question:  techniques, socially-disadvantaged children

Take a look at the last few lines of paragraph D, “There are quite a number of new methods which can help, such as child-initiated learning, ability-peer tutoring, etc.  Such practices have been found to be particularly useful for bright children from deprived areas.”

Here, new methods = classroom techniques, favour = found to be particularly useful, socially-disadvantaged children = children from deprived areas.

So, the answer is: D

Questions 18-22 (Matching statements with correct person or people):

(The rules for finding answers to this sort of question are simple. Just find the keywords and read around different names of people or person carefully. Then, give a quick look to check whether there is another statement or idea provided by the same person in the text. If there is, check the reference carefully and decide your answer. Remember, the questions may not follow any sequential order. )

Question 18: Less time can be spent on exercises with gifted pupils who produce accurate work.

Keywords for this question:  less time, exercises, gifted pupils, produce accurate work

In paragraph C, we find the results done by Shore and Kanevsky in 1993. The lines say, “If they (the gifted) merely think more quickly, then we need only teach more quickly. If they merely make fewer errors, then we can shorten the practice.”

Here, make fewer errors = produce accurate work, shorten the practice = less time spent on exercises

So, the answer is: B (Shore and Kanevsky)

Question 19: Self-reliance is a valuable tool that helps gifted students reach their goals.

Keywords for this question: self-reliance, valuable tool, reach, goals

In paragraph E, we find the research findings of Simonton in 1988 who came “ . . .. . … to the conclusion that  above a certain high level, characteristics such as independence seemed to contribute more to reaching the highest levels of expertise than intellectual skills, due to the great demands of effort and time needed for learning and practice.” The lines suggest that independence or self-reliance contributes more or helps a lot to reach the highest level or goal.

So, the answer is: D (Simonton)

Question 20: Gifted children know how to channel their feelings to assist their learning.

Keywords for this question: channel feelings, assist learning

Take a look at the last lines of the last paragraph, “In Boekaerts’ (1991) review of emotion in the learning of very high IQ and highly achieving children, she found emotional forces in harness. They (which mean the gifted children) were not only curious, but often had a strong desire to control their environment, improve their learning efficiency, and increase their own learning resources.” These lines mean that gifted children actually know to control their learning environment which helps them better to learn more.

Here, emotional forces in harness = channel their feelings, improve their learning efficiency = assist their learning

So, the answer is: E (Boekaerts)

Question 21: The very gifted child benefits from appropriate support from close relatives.

Keywords for this question: benefits, support from close relatives

In paragraph A we find about close relatives’ support from the research of Freeman (2010). Look at lines 7-9, “The higher the children’s IQ scores, especially over IQ 130, the better the  quality of their educational backup, measured in terms of reported verbal interactions with parents, number of books and activities in their home, etc.” Here, parents are the close relatives who support gifted children to learn.

So, the answer is: A (Freeman)

Question 22: Really successful students have learnt a considerable amount about their subject.

Keywords for this question: learn, considerable amount, about their subject

In paragraph E, the second and third lines are the findings of Elshout (1995) “… .. individuals who know a great deal about a specific domain will achieve at a higher level than those who do not.”

Here, know a great deal = have learnt a considerable amount, a specific domain = their subject, achieve at a higher level = really successful,

So, the answer is: C (Elshout)

Questions 23-26: (Completing sentences with NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS):

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to write no more than two words to complete sentences on the given topic. For this type of question, first, skim the passage to find the keywords in the paragraph concerned with the answer, and then scan to find the exact word/words.]

Question 23: One  study  found  a  strong  connection  between  children’s  IQ  and  the  availability  of _________ and ________ at home.

Keywords for this answer: connection, children’s IQ, at home

Look at paragraph A where the writer argues that “A very close positive relationship was found when children’s IQ scores were compared with their home educational provision. The higher the children’s IQ scores, especially over IQ 130, the better the quality of their educational backup, measured in terms of reported verbal interactions with parents, number of books and activities in their home, etc.”

Here, A very close positive relationship = a strong connection

So, the answers are: books, activities

Question 24: Children  of  average  ability  seem  to  need  more  direction  from  teachers  because  they  do  not have ________.

Keywords for this answer: average ability, more direction, they do not have,

In  paragraph B, the author mentions in lines 4-7, “There appears to be a qualitative difference in the way the intellectually highly able think, compared with more average-ability or older pupils, for whom external regulation by the teachers often compensates for lack of internal regulation.”

Here, external regulation = more direction, lack of = do not have,

So, the answer is: internal regulation

Question 25: Metacognition involves children understanding their own learning strategies, as well as developing __________.

Keywords for this answer: Metacognition, children understanding, learning strategies, developing,

In paragraph B, “To be at their most effective in their self-regulation, all children can be helped to identify their own ways of learning – metacognition – which include strategies of planning, monitoring, evaluation, and choice of what to learn. Emotional awareness is also part of metacognition, so children should be helped to be aware of their feelings around the area to be learned.”

So, the lines suggest that along with the learning strategies, metacognition includes emotional awareness.

So, the answer is: emotional awareness

Question 26: Teachers who rely on what is known as _________ often produce sets of impressive grades in class tests.

Keywords for this answer: rely on, produce impressive grades, tests,

In paragraph D we find in the first lines talk about teachers’ directing gifted children. Then in lines 3-4 the writer says, “Although ‘spoon-feeding’ can produce extremely high examination results, .. …. .. . ”

Here, extremely high examination results = sets of impressive grades in class tests

So, the answer is: spoon-feeding

Reading Passage 3:Museums of fine art and Their public

Questions 27-31 (Summary completion using a list of words)

(In this kind of question candidates are given a summary for one, two or three paragraphs with some fill-in-the-blanks questions. As these are Fill in blanks or gaps, there is a condition of writing the words from the given list of words for each answer. The words are given with letters and candidates must fill in the blanks with the correct letter, not the word/words. Candidates need to find out the related paragraphs by correctly studying the keywords from the questions. Then, they should follow the steps of finding answers to fill in the gaps.)

Questions 27 and 28: People go to art museums because they accept the value of seeing an original work of art. But they do not go to museums to read original manuscripts of novels, perhaps because the availability of novels has depended on  27. __________ for so long, and also because with novels, the 28. _________are the most important thing.

Question 27:

Keywords for this question: museums, novels,

For this question, we have to find out the reason people do not go to museums to read original manuscripts of novels. Let’s have a look at the second paragraph because we find the word ‘novel’ in this paragraph. At the beginning of paragraph 2, the writer says in lines 5-10, “This might be explained by the fact that the novel has evolved precisely because of technological developments that made it possible to printout huge numbers of texts, whereas oil paintings have always been produced as unique objects.” This means people do not need to go to museums to read novel manuscripts because novels are now available as a huge production of printed documents.

Here, to printout huge numbers of texts = mass production

So, the answer is: B (mass production)

Question 28:

Keywords for this question: novels, most important,

To find the answer to this question, we need to move to lines 13-16 of paragraph 2. Here the writer makes another comment about novels. “With novels, the reader attends mainly to the meaning of words rather than the way they are printed on the page.” These lines clearly indicate that the reader finds the meaning of words most important.

Here, most important = mainly, the meaning of words = underlying ideas

So, the answer is: H (underlying ideas)

Questions 29-30: However, in historical times, artists such as Leonardo were happy to instruct 29. _________to produce copies of their work and these days new methods of reproduction allow excellent replication of surface relief features as well as colour and 30. __________.

Question 29:

Keywords for this question: artists, instruct, copies

Let’s take a look at paragraph 3 for this question. The author talks about artists here and says that “…in the 16th century, artists seemed perfectly content to assign the reproduction of their creations to their workshop apprentices as regular ‘bread and butter’ work.”

Here, content = happy, workshop apprentices = assistants, reproduction = copy

So, the answer is: L (assistants)

Question 30:

Keywords for this question: excellent replication, colour, surface relief

The last part of paragraph  3 says,  “And  today  the  task  of  reproducing  pictures  is  incomparably  more  simple  and reliable, with reprographic techniques that allow the production of high-quality prints made exactly to the original scale, with faithful colour values,  and even  with  duplication of the surface relief of the painting.” The lines mean that along with the surface relief features and faithful colour values, new methods allow the copies made exactly to the original scale or the original size.

Here, reproducing = replication, today = these days

So, the answer is: G (size)  

Question 31: It is regrettable that museums still promote the superiority of original works of art, since this may not be in the interests of the ____________.

Keywords for this question: promote, original works, not in the interests of

In paragraph 5, “Unfortunately, this seems to place severe limitations on the kind of experience offered to visitors.”

The line suggests that it is an unfortunate or regrettable matter that museums still highlight or promote the most superior types of arts because general visitors do not have a great interest in them.

Here, regrettable = unfortunately, severe limitations on the kind of experience offered = may not be in the interests of, visitors = the public

So, the answer is: D (public) 

Questions 32-35 (Multiple choice questions)

[‘Multiple choice questions’ is a common type of question set in the IELTS Reading test. It is also found in the Listening test.  Most of the time, they come with four options but sometimes there are three options. Candidates need to work hard for this type of question because this may confuse them easily in passage 2 or passage 3. There will be long answers for each question, so they may kill valuable time. So, quick reading or skimming techniques might come in handy here.  Remember that answers in 3 options out of 4 will be very close. So, vocabulary power will help a lot to choose the best answer.

TIPS: Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly and don’t stop until you finish each sentence.]

Question 32: The writer mentions London’s National Gallery to illustrate —

Keywords for this question: London’s National Gallery  

To find the answer to this question, let’s find out the mention of London’s National Gallery. Take a look at paragraph 6. Here the author says, “In addition, a major collection like that of London’s National Gallery is housed in numerous rooms, each with dozens of works, any one of which is likely to be worth more than all the average visitor possesses. In a society that judges the personal status of the individual so much by their material worth, it is therefore difficult not to be impressed by one’s own relative ‘worthlessness’ in such an environment.”

These lines suggest the fact that London’s National Gallery is mentioned to demonstrate the adverse / negative effect a museum can have on visitors’ opinions of themselves.

Here, one’s own relative ‘worthlessness’ = negative

So, the answer is: C

Question 33: The writer says that today, viewers may be unwilling to criticise a work because —

Keywords for this question: unwilling, criticise a work

Read quickly paragraph 7,  “…since  these  works  were  originally  produced,  they  have  been  assigned  a  huge monetary value  by some  person  or  institution  more  powerful  than  themselves.” These lines talk about the strong power behind the artworks and their maintenance in the museum. Then read the following lines, “Evidently, nothing the viewer thinks about the work is going to alter the value, and so today’s viewer is deterred from trying to extend that spontaneous, immediate, self-reliant kind of reading which would originally have met work.” Now, these lines clearly show that the viewers or audiences in a museum feel that their opinion is of no importance or significance/nothing the viewer thinks about the work is going to alter the value and so they are deterred from trying to give any opinion.

So, the answer is: D

Question 34: According to the writer, the „displacement effect‟ on the visitor is caused by –

Keywords for this question: displacement effect, caused by

The answer is in paragraph 8. Here, the writer says at the very beginning, “The visitor may be struck by the strangeness of seeing such diverse paintings, drawings and sculptures brought together in an environment for which they were not originally created. This ‘displacement effect’ . …  .. . .. .. ” These lines describe what the displacement effect is. It means the variety of works placed and arranged somewhere they are not created for.

So, the answer is: A

Question 35: The writer says that unlike other forms of art, a painting does not –

Keywords for this question: unlike other forms of art, a painting does not

Take a close look at the first lines in paragraph 9 where the writer differentiates between paintings and other arts. “A fundamental difference between paintings and other forms is that there is no prescribed time over which a painting is viewed.” Then again in lines 11-13, “whereas a picture has no clear place at which to start viewing, or at which to finish.” So, the lines explain the fact that the difference between other forms of art and a painting is that a painting has no specific start or end.

So, the answer is: D

Questions 36-40 (YES/NO/NOT GIVEN):

In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the account in the text- YESThe statement in the question contradicts the account in the text- NOThe statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN

For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.

Question 36: Art history should focus on discovering the meaning of art using a range of media.

Keywords for this question: art history, meaning of art, media

We find the mention of art history/historian in paragraph 10. “Consequently, the dominant critical approach becomes that of the art historian, a specialised academic approach devoted to ‘discovering the meaning’ of art within the cultural context of its time”. So, it means it has become common for art historians to devote themselves to discovering the meaning. But the lines do not tell us whether art history should focus on meaning or not.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 37: The approach of art historians conflicts with that of art museums.

Keywords for this question: approach, art historians, conflicts, art museums.  

For the previous question, we found that art historians devote themselves on discovering the meaning of art forms. Now, look at lines 5-6 of paragraph 10, “This is in perfect harmony with the museum’s function, since . . . .. . . .” So, this line suggests that there is a ‘harmony’ between art historian’s approach and the function of art museum. The word ‘harmony’ is the exact antonym/ opposite of ‘conflict’.

So, the answer is: NO

Question 38: People should be encouraged to give their opinions openly on works of art.

Keywords for this question: should be encouraged, give, opinions openly,

Take a look at the last paragraph, lines 4-7, “The museum public, like any other audience, experience art more rewardingly when given the confidence to express their views.” The lines suggest that if people provide their opinions about works of art, the museums can benefit from this. So, this is an encouragement for people to provide opinions.

Here, express their views means to give their opinions.

So, the answer is: YES

Question 39: Reproductions of fine art should only be sold to the public if they are of high quality.

Keywords for this question: reproductions, should only be sold, high quality

We find the discussion about reproductions of fine art in the last paragraph. “If appropriate works of fine art could be rendered permanently accessible to the public by means of high-fidelity reproductions, as literature and music already are, the public may feel somewhat less in awe of them.”

There is no information about “selling fine art reproductions to the public”.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 40: In the future, those with power are likely to encourage more people to enjoy art.

Keywords for this question: future, power, encourage, enjoy art

Take a look at the very last line of the last paragraph, “Unfortunately, that may be too much to ask from those who seek to maintain and control the art establishment.” The line means it is a very unfortunate matter that it is not a very good idea (too much to ask) to ask people with power to establish and maintain museums to encourage people to enjoy art.

So, the answer is: NO



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