Reading Passage 1:Research using twins

Questions 1-4:            (TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN):

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the account in the text- TRUE
The statement in the question contradicts the account in the text- FALSE
The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN

For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question 1: There may be genetic causes for the differences in how young the skin of identical twins looks.

Keywords for the question: may be, genetic cause, differences, young, skin,

The answer can be found in lines 8-11 of the first paragraph. Here, the writer says, “Any differences between them – one twin having younger looking skin, for example – must be due to environmental factors such as less time spent in the sun.” It means the differences are because of the environment, not for genetic causes.

So, the answer is: FALSE

Question 2: Twins are at greater risk of developing certain illnesses than non-twins.

Keywords for the question: greater risk, developing certain illnesses,

Many of you might think the answer is in the second paragraph because of these lines, “If identical twins are more similar to each other with respect to an ailment than fraternal twins are, then vulnerability to the disease must be rooted at least in part in heredity. Unfortunately, the sentence starts with ‘if’, which means the writer only compares identical twins with fraternal twins, he doesn’t make a comparison between twins and non-twins.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN                   

Question 3: Bouchard advertised in newspapers for twins who had been separated at birth.

Keywords for the question: Bouchard, advertised, newspapers,

In paragraph no. 3 and 4, we find reference to the groundbreaking research on twins. However, nowhere in the paragraph we find any reference to advertisement in newspapers.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN                   

Question 4: Epigenetic processes are different from both genetic and environmental processes.

Keywords for the question: Epigenetic, different from, genetic and environmental,

In paragraph no. 6, the writer mentions, “… .. .nature and nurture are not the only elemental forces at work. According to a recent field called epigenetics, there is a third factor also in play, one that in some cases serves as a bridge between the environment and our genes.” In the previous paragraphs, genetic and environmental processes (nature and nurture) have been explained. Now, in paragraph 6 this line means that the epigenetic process works as a bridge between those two processes. It means it is neither a genetic process nor an environmental process.

So, the answer is: TRUE       

Questions 5-9: (Matching statements with a list of researchers)

[In this kind of questions, the candidates have to match the statements which are stated by different researchers given in the list.]

Question 5: invented a term used to distinguish two factors affecting human characteristics

Keywords for the question: invented a term, distinguish, characteristics

It is quite easy to find this answer because there is a trick that works here perfectly.

Special Tips:

The phrase “invented a term” is synonymous to ‘coined the phrase’. It means saying something special that no one used this way before. Remember the saying, “Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee” by the greatest boxer Mohammad Ali. He coined the phrase. 🙂

So, for this question, we need to find ‘coined the phrase’ and we find it in paragraph no. 4. Here, the writer says, “The idea of using twins to measure the influence of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach (and coined the phrase ‘nature and nurture’.)”

So, the answer is: A (Francis Galton)

Question 6: expressed the view that the study of epigenetics will increase our knowledge

Keywords for the question: study of epigenetics, will increase, knowledge

The answer can be found at the end of paragraph 12 lines 1-3. Here, we find the comments or views of Geneticist Danielle Reed. “Reed adds, the latest work in epigenetics promises to take our understanding even further”. This means that Reed is hopeful that the study of epigenetics will give us a better understanding or knowledge.

So, the answer is: (Danielle Reed)  

Question 7: developed a mathematical method of measuring genetic influences.

Keywords for the question: developed, mathematical method, measuring genetic influences

In paragraph 5, the author mentions, “Bouchard and his colleagues used this mountain of data to identify how far twins were affected by their genetic makeup. The key to their approach was a statistical concept called heritability. In broad terms, the heritability of a trait measures the extent to which differences among members of a population can be explained by differences in their genetics”.

Here, statistical concept = mathematical method

So, the answer is: B (Thomas Bouchard)

Question 8: pioneered research into genetics using twins

Keywords for the question: pioneered, research, genetics, twins

Answer to this question can be found in paragraph no. 4 lines 1-4, “The idea of using twins to measure the influence of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach. .. . . .”. Here, the phrase “first suggested” means that Francis Galton was the first person or the pioneer to use twins to measure the influence of heredity.

So, the answer is: (Francis Galton)

Question 9: carried out research into twins who had lived apart

Keywords for the question: carried out, research, twins who had lived apart,  

To find the answer to this question, we need to locate the key phrase twins who had lived apart’ which can be found in paragraph no. 4. Here, the writer says in lines 6-10, “… .. twin studies took a surprising twist in the 1980s, with the arrival of studies into identical twins who had been separated at birth and reunited as adults. Over two decades 137 sets of twins eventually visited Thomas Bouchard’s lab….”

So, the answer is: (Thomas Bouchard)

Question 10-13: (Summary completion using the list of words)

(In this kind of question candidates are given a summary for one, two, or three paragraphs with some fill-in-the-blanks questions. As these are fill-in-the-blanks or gaps, there is a condition of writing ONE, TWO, or THREE words for each answer or, for this kind of question, choose words from a given list. Candidates need to find out the related paragraphs by correctly studying the keywords from the questions. Then, they should follow the steps of finding answers to fill in the gaps.)

Question 10 and 11: In epigenetic processes, 10 __________ influence the activity of our genes, for example in creating our internal 11 ____________.

Keywords for the question: epigenetic process, influence, activity of our genes, creating, our internal,

The answer lies in paragraph 7. You need to read the whole paragraph. First, the writer says, in line 1 and 2, what epigenetic processes are. “Epigenetic processes are chemical reactions .. .. . ..” Then in the last few lines of the paragraph, the writer explains what these chemical reactions influence, “These reactions influence how our genetic code is expressed: how each gene is strengthened or weakened; even turned on or off, to build our bones, brains and all other parts of our bodies.”

So, it can be deduced or realized from these lines that ‘chemical’ reactions influence how our internal body parts are created such as ‘our bones, brains’ etc.

So, the answers are:

  1. (chemicals)
  2. B (organs)

Question 12: The study of epigenetic processes is uncovering a way in which our genes can be affected by our  ________.

Keywords for the question: uncovering a way, our genes can be affected,   

In paragraph 9, the writer mentions in lines 1-5, “One way the study of epigenetics is revolutionizing our understanding of biology is by revealing a mechanism by which the environment directly impacts our genes.”

Here, the word ‘impact’ is synonymous to ‘affected’, ‘revealing’ is synonymous to ‘uncovering a way’.

So the answer is: (environment)

Question 13: One example is that if a pregnant rat suffers stress, the new-born rat may show problems in its ____________.

Keywords for the question: pregnant rat, suffers stress,

The answer to this question can also be found in  paragraph  9, where the  writer  says  in lines 5-9, “Studies  of  animals,  for  example,  have  shown  that  when  a  rat experiences  stress  during  pregnancy,  it  can  cause  epigenetic  changes  in  a  fetus  that  lead  to  behavioral problems as the rodent grows up.”

So the answer is: F (behavior/ behavior)

Reading Passage 2:An Introduction to Film Sound

Questions 14-20: (Multiple Choice Questions)

[Multiple choice questions are a common type of question set in the IELTS Reading test. Most of the time, they come with four options but sometimes there are three options. Candidates need to work hard for this type of question because this may confuse them easily in passage 2 or passage 3. There will be long answers for each question, so they may kill valuable time. So, quick reading or skimming techniques might come in handy here.  Remember that answers in 3 options out of 4 will be very close. So, vocabulary power will help a lot to choose the best answer.]

[TIPS: Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not to understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly and don’t stop until you finish each sentence.]

Question 14: In the first paragraph, the writer makes a point that

Keywords for the question: NO KEYWORDS HERE

In  the first  paragraph,  the  author  describes the importance of sound in lines 1-4, at the very opening of the paragraph,  “Though  we  might  think  of  film  as  an  essentially  visual experience, we really cannot afford to underestimate the importance of film sound.”

Here, the word ‘underestimate’ means ‘overlook’.

After that, the author also gives details of how important film sound is. So, he makes a point that it would be wrong to overlook the contribution of sound to the artistry of films.

*Underestimate = overlook

So, the answer is: B (it would be wrong to overlook the contribution of sound to the artistry of films.)

Question 15: One reason that the writer refers to Humphrey Bogart is to exemplify

Keywords for the question: Humphrey Bogart, exemplify,

In the second paragraph, the author gives reference to Humphrey Bogert in lines 4-10, “Often with film characterization, the audience perceives little or no difference between the character and the actor. Thus, for example, the actor Humphrey Bogart is the character Sam Spade; film personality and life personality seem to merge.”

  • merge = become one

This clearly means that Humphrey Bogart is mentioned to exemplify the significance of the actor and the character appears to have similar personalities.

So, the answer is: A (the importance of the actor and the character appearing to have similar personalities.)

Question 16: In the third paragraph, the writer suggests that

Keywords for the question: NO KEYWORDS HERE

In paragraph no. 3, the writer mentions the use of dialogues in lines 6-12, “It  is  interesting  to  note  that  how  dialogue  is  use and the very amount of dialogue used varies widely  among  films.  For  example,  in  the  highly  successful  science-fiction  film  2001,  little  dialogue  was evident, and most of it was banal  and of little intrinsic interest.”

Here, banal means dull or boring

So, the answer is: B (film dialogue that appears to be dull may have a specific purpose.)

Question 17: What does the writer suggest about Bringing Up Baby?

Keywords for the question: suggest, Bringing Up Baby,

The answer lies in the beginning of paragraph no. 4, in lines 1-8. Here, the author says, “The comedy Bringing Up Baby, on the other hand, presents practically non-stop dialogue delivered at breakneck speed. This use of dialogue underscores not only the dizzy quality of the character Katherine Hepburn, but also the absurdity of the film itself and thus its humor.”

These lines suggest that the dialogue in the film Bringing Up Baby highlights key elements of the film.

  • key elements = the absurdity of the humor of the film

So, the answer is: D (The nature of the dialogue emphasizes key elements of the film.)

Question 18: The writer refers to the ‘click’ of a door to make the point that realistic sounds

Keywords for the question: click of a door, realistic sounds

We can see the reference to the ‘click’ sound in paragraph no. 5. Here, in lines 6-19 the author says, “Synchronous sounds contribute to the realism of film and also help to create a particular atmosphere. For example, the ‘click’ of a door being opened may simply serve to  convince  the  audience  that  the  image  portrayed  is  real,  and  the  audience  may  only  subconsciously note the expected sound. However, if the ‘click’ of an opening door is part of an ominous action such as a burglary, the sound mixer may call attention to the ‘click’ with an increase in volume; this helps to engage the audience in a moment of suspense.”

These lines suggest that realistic sounds can be modified by increasing the sound volume to make it more realistic.

So, the answer is: C (may be modified in order to manipulate the audience’s response to the film.)

Question 19-23: (TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN):

In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the account in the text- TRUE
The statement contradicts the account in the text- FALSE
The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN

[For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question 19: Audiences are likely to be surprised if a film lacks background music.

Keywords for the question: audiences, likely to be surprised, film lack background music

In the very beginning of paragraph no. 7, the writer says that “We are probably all familiar with background music in films, which has become so ubiquitous as to be noticeable in its absence.”

Here, ubiquitous = ever-present

This means background sound or music has become an essential part of films. So, there is a high possibility that the audience will surely notice it and be surprised if background music is absent from a film.

So, the answer is: TRUE

Question 20: Background music may anticipate a development in a film.

Keywords for the question: anticipate, development

Again, in paragraph no. 7, the author mentions in the end, “In addition, background music often foreshadows a change in mood.”

Here, the word ‘foreshadow’ is synonymous to ‘anticipate’. This means the background music can make the audience understand what changes are going to happen in a film.

So, the answer is: TRUE

Question 21: Background music has more effect on some people than on others.

Keywords for this question: more effect, some people than on others     

We find the reference to ‘background music’ and its effects in both paragraphs no. 7 and 8. But we cannot find any comparison as to whether it has more or less effect on some people.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 22: Background music may help the audience to make certain connections within the film.

Keywords for this question: help the audience, make certain connections  

The writer states in lines 1 and 2 of paragraph no. 8, “Background music may aid viewer understanding by linking scenes.”

Here, help means aidaudience means viewermake connections within a film means linking scenes

So, the answer is: TRUE

Question 23: Audiences tend to be aware of how the background music is affecting them.

Keywords for this question: audiences, tend to, be aware, how, affecting,    

In the final paragraph, the author says, “The effects of sound are often largely subtle and often are noted by only our subconscious minds.”

Here, subtle means delicate or faint or slight

So, audiences aren’t truly aware of the background music’s effect. Rather, subconscious mind takes note of it.

So, the answer is: FALSE

Question 24-26: (Completing sentences with correct ending)

[For this type of question, candidates need to match the beginning and end of sentences. Candidates need to look for keywords in the sentence-beginnings and find the relative paragraphs and then sentences in the passage. Skimming and scanning, both reading skills are essential for this question-type.]

Question 24: The audience’s response to different parts of a film can be controlled

Keywords for this answer: response, different parts, controlled

 In paragraph no. 1, the writer states in lines 8-13, “The entire sound track consists of three essential ingredients: the human voice, sound effects and music. These three tracks must be mixed and balanced so as to produce the necessary emphases which in turn create desired effects”.

The lines mean that the response or reaction of the audience can be influenced if voice, sound, and music are appropriately combined.

Here, combined appropriately means mixed and balanced.

So, the answer is: C

Question 25: The feelings and motivations of characters become clear

Keywords for this answer: feelings, motivation, clear

In paragraph 2, the writer says in lines 1-4, “… . As is the case with stage drama, dialogue serves to tell the story and expresses feelings and motivations of characters as well.”

This means that listening to dialogues clarifies the feelings and motivations of characters in the film.

So, the answer is: A

Question 26: A character seems to be a real person rather than an actor

Keywords for this answer: seems to be real person, than actor

In paragraph no. 3, the writer says in lines 1-3, “When voice textures fit the performer’s physiognomy  and gestures, a whole and very realistic person emerges.”

Here, actor means performer, appearance means physiognomymoves means gesturesconsistent with means fit

These lines suggest that a character appears to be a real person rather than an actor given to the fact that the audience listens to the voice, looks at the appearance of the character, and watches how he/she moves.

So, the answer is: E

Reading Passage 3:This Marvellous Invention

Questions 27-32:  (List of headings/ Matching Headlines):

[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc,). A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C, and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections so some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph that will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.

TIPS: Read the first two lines, and occasionally, the last line of each heading. In most cases, the answers are found here. Do it for all the paragraphs. Do not read too much. If you still don’t find the answers, only then, read the remaining texts.]

Question 27: Paragraph A

In paragraph A, we find two different lines which confirm our answer. The first line is line no. 1 which says, “Of all mankind’s manifold creations, language must take pride of place.” The second line is line no. 3 which says, “… Compared to language, all other inventions pale in significance, since …  … . .” These two lines explain that language is the best invention of all.

So, the answer is: vi (Why language is the most important invention of all)

Question 28: Paragraph B

In paragraph B, again, the first and last lines give us the answer. Line 1 & 2 says, “.. . . . In its own right it is a tool of extraordinary sophistication, yet based on an idea of ingenious simplicity: . . ..” Here, the writer gives us the impression that language is something that is special (extraordinary sophistication) yet it is of an idea which may surprise us because of the creative simplicity (ingenious simplicity), and this is why it is incompatible or mismatched. Also, take a look at the last lines, “Language is mankind’s greatest invention – except, of course, that it was never invented. This apparent paradox is at the core of our fascination with language, and it holds many of its secrets.” Here, paradox = irony or contradiction or mismatched.

So, the answer is: iv (Apparently incompatible characteristics of language)

Question 29: Paragraph C

In paragraph C, first, the writer asks in line 2-3, “How else could this instrument make so much out of barely three dozen measly morsels of sound?” Then, we find in the next few lines the explanations of how the alphabets or letters work out by arranging themselves to make perfect sounds that can be conveyed into a language. “In themselves, these configurations of mouth – p, f, b, v, t, d, k, sh, a, e and so on –amount to nothing .. . . . . . But run them through the cogs and wheels of the language machine, let it arrange them in some very special orders, and there is nothing that these meaningless streams of air cannot do: from sighing the interminable boredom of existence to unravelling the fundamental order of the universe.”

Here, barely three dozen measly morsels of sound = a few sounds

So, the answer is: ii (The way in which a few sounds are organised to convey a huge range of meaning)

Question 30: Paragraph D

In paragraph D, the writer talks about the universal or worldwide or common ability to use language  “The language machine allows just about everybody – from pre-modern foragers in the subtropical savannah, to post-modern philosophers in the suburban sprawl – to tie these meaningless sounds together into an infinite variety of subtle senses, and all apparently without  the slightest exertion.” This means that language is universal to use.

So, the answer is: vii (The universal ability to use language)

Question 31: Paragraph E

In  paragraph E,  the  writer  states, “Often,  it  is  the  only  estrangement  of  foreign  tongues,  with their many exotic and outlandish features, that brings home the wonder of language’s design.” This means the more a language is different from other language, the more it becomes impressive. The writer also provides the example of a Turkish word of outstanding length that takes a whole sentence to utter in English.

So, the answer is:(Differences between languages highlight their impressiveness)

Question 32: Paragraph F

In paragraph F, the answer is found in lines 8-9, “… . . . . even the absence of a sound has been enlisted to express something specific.”

Here, the absence of a sound = silence, specific = meaningful

So, the answer is: (Even silence can be meaningful)

Questions 33-36: (Summary completion with the given list of words)

[In this kind of question candidates get a summary for one, two, or three paragraphs with some fill in the blanks questions. As these are fill-in-the-blanks or gaps questions, there is a condition of writing the answers from the given list of words for each answer and candidates must maintain this condition. Candidates need to find out the related paragraphs by correctly studying the keywords form the questions. Then, they should follow the steps of finding answers to fill in the gaps. The letters for the words are the answers, so candidates must not put down the words.]

Title of the summary: The importance of language

Question 33 and 34 : The wheel is one invention that has had a major impact on __________ aspects of life, but no impact has been as _________ as that of language.

Keywords for these questions: wheel, invention, impact, aspects

In paragraph A, the writer states about the inventions like wheel, “Other inventions – the wheel, agriculture, sliced bread – may have transformed our material existence, but the advent of language is what made us human.  Compared to language, all other inventions pale in significance, since everything we have ever achieved depends on language and originates from it.”

These lines suggest that the invention of wheel has had a major impact on material aspects of life, but such impacts has not been as significant or fundamental as that of language, because all other inventions have originated from language.

So, the answers are:

  • E (material)
  • G (fundamental)

Question 35: Language is very _________, yet composed of just a small number of sounds.

Keywords for this question: composed, small number of sounds

At the beginning of paragraph B, the author states, “In its own right it is a tool of extraordinary sophistication, yet based on an idea of ingenious simplicity: .. .. .” Then in the next lines, the writer talks about the limitation of numbers of sounds, “… this marvelous invention of composing out of twenty-five or thirty sounds that infinite variety of expression . . . .. “

These lines suggest that language is sophisticated or complex but it comes out of only a few sounds.

So, the answer is: B (complex)

Question 36: Language appears to be ________ to use. However, its sophistication is often overlooked.    

Keywords for this question: appears, sophistication, overlooked

This answer is found in paragraph D. Here, in lines 5-9, the author says, “.. . .. Yet it is precisely this deceptive ease which makes language a victim of its own success since in everyday life its triumphs are usually taken for granted. The wheels of language run so smoothly that one rarely bothers to stop and think about all the resourcefulness and expertise that must have gone into making it tick.” The lines suggest that language provides us ease, and this ease has made people think very little about how sophisticated a language is or how it is being constructed.

So, the answer is: F (easy)

Questions 36-40 (YES/NO/NOT GIVEN):

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the claim of the writer in the text- YES
The statement contradicts the claim of the writer in the text- NO
The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN]

[TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question 37: Human beings might have achieved their present position without language.

Keywords for this question: human beings, present position, without language

In the very first paragraph, the writer says in the end, “Without language, we could never have embarked on our ascent to unparalleled power over all other animals, and even over nature itself.”

So, the statement directly contradicts with the passage.

So, the answer is: NO

Question 38: The Port-Royal grammarians did justice to the nature of language.

Keywords for this question: Port-Royal grammarians, did justice,

In paragraph B, the writer gives reference to the grammarians of Port-Royal, “. . .. This was how, in 1660, the renowned French grammarians of the Port-Royal abbey near Versailles distilled the essence of language, and no one since has celebrated more eloquently the magnitude of its achievement.”

The lines suggest that the Port-Royal grammarians have most eloquently or beautifully described the essence or nature of language. So, surely they did justice to the nature of language.

So, the answer is: YES

Question 39: A complex idea can be explained more clearly in a sentence than in a single word.

Keywords for this question: complex idea, clearly, sentence

We do not find any such statement as to whether a complex idea can be described more easily or clearly than in a single word. The writer refers to the long Turkish word in paragraph E to explain that one word can clarify a big sentence.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 40: The Sumerians were responsible for starting the recording of events.

Keywords for this question: Sumerians, recording events

In  paragraph  F,  the  writer  states,  “And  if  that  sounds  like  some  one-off  freak,  then  consider Sumerian,  the  language  spoken  on  the  banks  of  the  Euphrates  some  5,000  years  ago  by  the  people  who invented writing and thus enabled the documentation of history.”  So, the statement suggests clearly that the Sumerians invented writing and documentation of history.

So, the answer is: YES



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