Reading Passage 1:Roman tunnels

1. ………………………. to direct the tunneling

posts – First paragraph, 3rd line. “They introduced the qanat method of tunnel construction, which consisted of placing posts over a hill in a straight line, to ensure that the tunnel kept to its route.” The meaning of “to ensure that the tunnel kept to its route” is that tunnel should go into the right direction.

2. water runs into a …………………….. used by local people

canal – First paragraph, 7th line. “Once the tunnel was completed, it allowed water to flow from top of a hillside down towards a canal, which supplied water for human use.” Human use = local people.

3. vertical shafts to remove earth and for………………………..

ventilation – First paragraph, 6th line. “The excavated soil was taken up to the surface using the shafts, which also provided ventilation.

4. ………………………… made of wood or stone

lid – Second paragraph, 3rd line. “The shafts were equipped with handholds and footholds to help those climbing in and out of them and were covered with a wooden or stone lid.”

5. ………………………… attached to plumb line

weight – Second paragraph, 5th line. “Romans hung a plumb line from a rod placed across the top of each shaft and made sure that the weight at the end of it hung in the centre of the shaft.”

6. handholds and footholds used for…………………….

climbing – Second paragraph, 3rd line.  “The shafts were equipped with handholds and footholds to help those climbing in and out of them.


7. The counter-excavation method completely replaced the qanat method in the 6th century BCE.

FALSE – Third paragraph’s first 3 lines. “It was used to cut through high mountains when the qanat method was not practical alternative.” It means when qanat method was not useful, then counter-excavation method was used. So counter-excavation method did not completely replaced qanat method. So FALSE.

8. Only experienced builders were employed to construct a tunnel using the counter-excavation method.

NOT GIVEN – In third paragraph, from 3rd line to 5th line, they talk about knowledge, skill, and planning needed for counter excavation. But not anywhere they said only experienced were employed to construct tunnels using counter-excavation method. So NOT GIVEN.

9. The information about a problem that occurred during the construction of the Saldae aqueduct system was found in ancient book.

False – Third paragraph’s last four lines. In these lines, they said that inscription was written on the side of 428-meter tunnel that describes how two teams of builders missed each other in the mountain. The problem is written on side of the cave not in any ancient book. So FALSE. (Inscription: written or carved on something)  

10. The mistake made by the builders of the Saldae aqueduct system was that the two parts of the tunnel failed to meet.

True –  Third paragraph’s second-last line. “Teams of builders missed each other in the mountain and how the later construction of a lateral link between both corridors corrected the initial error.” Clearly given. So TRUE. (Lateral – from a side or sides)

Answer the questions below

11. What type of mineral were the Dolaucothi mines in Wales built to extract?

gold – Fourth paragraph, 6th line. “Traces of such tunnels used to mine gold can still be found at Dolaucothi mines in Wales.”

12. In addition to the patron, whose name might be carved onto a tunnel?

(the) architect(‘s) (name) – Last paragraph, 11th line. “Most tunnels had inscriptions showing the names of patrons who ordered construction and sometimes the name of the architect.”

13. What part of Seleuceia Pieria was the Cevlik tunnel built to protect?

(the) harbour/ harbor – Last paragraph, 13th line. “1.4- kilometer Cevlik tunnel in Turkey, built to divert the floodwater threatening the harbor of the ancient city of Seleuceia Pieria”

Reading Passage 2:Changes in reading habits

14. What is the writer’s main point in the first paragraph?

A – Our use of technology is having a hidden effect on us– First paragraph, lines 4 to 6. “The meaning of these lines is that neuronal circuit related to our reading ability is changing without everyone’s knowledge.” Unbeknown-without the knowledge of someone. Invisible is a synonym to hidden. Hence, there is a hidden effect.

15. What main point does Sherry Turkle make about innovation?

B – We should pay attention to what might be lost when innovation occurs– Third paragraph, line 2 to 5. “We do not err as a society when we innovate but when we ignore what we disrupt or diminish while innovating.” In these lines, the writer said that we make an err (mistake) when we do not pay attention to what we disrupt or diminish (make or become less) while innovating.

16. What point is the writer making in the fourth paragraph?

D – Some brain circuits adjust to whatever is required of them– Fourth paragraph, line 2 to 6. “It will adapt to that environment’s requirements” This paragraph is about reading circuit of the brain, and the writer explained that reading circuit changes according to the requirement. (Adapt- adjust modify)

17. According to Mark Edmundson, the attitude of college students

B – has influenced what they select to read– Fifth paragraph, line 3 to 5. “In these lines, Mark Edmundson said the students have attitude of no patience to read longer, denser, and more difficult text so they avoid (not select) classic literature of 19th and 20th century.”

Write the correct letter A-H
Studies on digital screen use

18. showing some……………. trends.

D – worrying. Sixth paragraph’s First two lines. Keyword -> Troubling = Worrying.

19. technique to find out how ………………….. each group’s understanding

H – thorough. 6th paragraph, line 6 and 7. “Result indicated that who read on print were superior in their comprehension” Keyword – superior in their comprehension = thorough in understanding.  

20. finding the order of information …………………… to recall.

F – hard. 6th paragraph, line 6 to 8. “Result indicated that students who read on print were superior in their comprehension to screen-reading peers, particularly in their ability to sequence detail and reconstruct the plot in chronological order.” In these lines, the writer said students who read on print were good at understanding and they can better detail information in chronological (following the order of events in which they occurred) order. So it means screen reading peers were not good at such capabilities and it was hard for them to recall order of information.

21. tending to read  ………………….. words and phrases in a text to save time.

B – isolated. 7th paragraph line 3 to 4. “ Many readers now use a pattern when reading in which they sample the first line and the word-spot through rest of the text. When the reading brain skims like this, it reduces time allocated to deep reading processes.” Word-spotting = isolated words

22. superficial understanding of the ……………………… content of material

C – emotional. 7th paragraph’s last 2 lines. “In other words, we don’t have time to grasp complexity, to understand another’s feelings.” Feelings = emotions.


23. The medium we use to read can affect our choice of reading content.

Yes – Eighth paragraph, line 3 & 4. “It is about how all we have begun to read on various mediums and how that changes not only what we read, but also purposes for which we read.” What we read = choice of reading content. So the answer is YES.

24. Some age groups are more likely to lose the complex reading skills than others.

No – Eighth paragraph, line 4 & 5. “Nor is it only about the young. The subtle atrophy of critical analysis and empathy effects us all equally.” It effects us all equally, not some age groups. So the answer is NO. Atrophy = gradual decline in effectiveness or vigour. 

25. False information has become more widespread in today’s digital era.

Not Given – Eighth paragraph, line 5 to 8. In these lines, the writer said that due to a lot of information, we go to familiar (known) information which is unchecked and receive and require no analysis. It makes likely to influence by false information. But nowhere the writer talk about false information has become widespread. So the answer is NOT GIVEN.

26. We still have opportunities to rectify the problems that technology is presenting.

YES – Last paragraph’s line 3 & 4. “We possess both the science and the technology to identify and redress the changes how we read before they become entrenched.” It means we have science and technology to find and rectify (solve/ redress) problems that technology is presenting before they get permanent. Entrenched = firmly established.

Reading Passage 3:Attitudes towards Artificial Intelligence

27. Section A

iii – The superiority of AI projections over those made by humansSection A’s full first part and the second part’s first line. A section’s first part tells about fields in which AI is used to predict future. In the A section’s second part’s first line, it is clearly said that AI is almost always better at forecasting (predict/projection) than we are. So the answer is iii

28. Section B

vi – Widespread distrust of an AI innovation. B section’s first part, from line 6 to 9, and line 1 & 2 of the second part of B section. Watson is a supercomputer used for Oncology. If Watson gives opinion about treatment that doctors already know, then doctors do not see it with much value. If Watson recommends something opposite of expert’s opinion, doctors think Watson is not smart enough. It means they do not want to trust Watson in any way. So the answer is vi

29. Section C

ii – Reasons why we have more faith in human judgement than in AI. Section C, from line 1 to 5. In these lines, the writer explained that we trust in human more because we understand how others think and our trust on them was right so we feel safe. But we do not know much about AI, so we do not faith them. Thus, the answer is ii  

30. Section D

i – An increasing divergence of attitudes towards AI. Section D’s 2nd part’s 3rd & 4th line. “ As AI is represented more and more in media and entertainment, it could lead to society split between those who benefit and those who reject it.” Divergence (split) = Difference in opinions.

31. Section E

vii – Encouraging openness about how AI functions. Section E’s full second part. The first line of this part said showing more about how algorithms work and for what they work will improve the trust in AI. So answer is vii.

32. Section F

v – The advantages of involving users in AI processes. First line of F section. “Allowing people’s control over AI decision-making could also improve trust”. Advantage-> improve people’s trust.

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

33. What is the writer doing in Section A?

C  – highlighting the existence of a problem. Section A’s second part’s line 2 & 3. The problem is the lack of confidence in AI predictions. So the answer is C. 

34. According to Section C, why might some people be reluctant to accept AI?

B – its complexity makes them feel they are at a disadvantage. Section C’s first part’s last three lines. A sense of losing control is the disadvantage that the writer talked about. Complexity-> difficult to comprehend. Comprehend = understand.

35. What does the writer say about the media in Section C of the text?

A – It leads the public to be mistrustful of AI. Section C’s second part’s lines 3 to 5. “Embarrassing AI failures receive a disproportionate amount of media attention, emphasizing the massage that we cannot rely on technology.” Clearly give.   


36. Subjective depictions of AI in sci-fi films make people change their opinion about automation.

NO – Section D’s first part’s lines 3 to 7. “In the last line of this part, it is said that optimists became more extreme in their enthusiasm for AI and skeptics became even more guarded.” It means people who favour AI start favoring more while who doubt AI became stronger in their opinion after watching AI film. So the answer is NO.

37. Portrayals of AI in media and entertainment are likely to become more positive.

NOT GIVEN – There is discussion related to media and entertainment in D section but nothing is discussed whether the media will portray AI positively or not.

38. Rejection of the possibilities of AI may have a negative effect on many people’s lives.

YES – Section D’s second part’s last 2 lines. “Refusing to accept the advantages offered by AI could place a large group of people at a serious disadvantage.” Clearly given. So, the answer is YES.

39. Familiarity with AI has very little impact on people’s attitude to the technology.

NO – Section E’s first part’s lines 2 to 4. “In these lines, the writer said that having previous experience with AI can significantly improve people’s opinion about technology.” The given lines contradict with the question. So the answer is NO.

40. AI applications which users are able to modify are more likely to gain consumer approval.

YES – Section F’s first part’s lines 3 & 4. “When people were allowed the freedom to slightly modify an algorithm, they felt more satisfied with its decision”. So the answer is YES.



Let's Start a Conversation

Point of Contact:

Call us at:


Email us at:


46 D Pathribagh, Doon Sarla Academy,
SGRR PG College Rd, Dehradun,
Uttarakhand - 248001