Reading Passage 1:The Development of the London underground railway

  1. ………………………… of London increased rapidly between 1800 and 1850

population – First paragraph, first line. In the first half (1800 – 1850) of the 1800s, London’s population grew at an astonishing rate.

  • Building the railway would make it possible to move people to better housing in the……………….

Suburb – Second Paragraph, Fourth line. His idea was to relocate the poor workers who lived in the inner- city slums to newly constructed suburbs.

  • A number of …………….agreed with Pearson’s idea

Businessmen   Second Paragraph, Sixth line. Pearson’s ideas gained support amongst some businessmen and in.

  • The company initially had problem getting the …………….needed for the project

Funding – Third Paragraph, Fourth line. The organization had difficulty in raising the funding for such a radical and expensive scheme.

  • Negative articles about the project appeared in the………………

press –  Third Paragraph, Fifth line.  not least because of the critical (negative) articles printed by the press.

  • With the completion of the brick arch, the tunnel was covered with ……..

soil – Fourth Paragraph, Last line. A two-metre-deep layer of soil was laid on the top of the tunnel and the road above rebuilt.

True/ False/Not given

       7. Other countries had built underground railways before the metropolitan line opened.

False – Fifth Paragraph, First line. The metropolitan line, which opened on 10 January 1863, was the world’s first underground railway.

  • More people than predicted travelled on the metropolitan line on the first day.

Not Given  Fifth Paragraph, Second and third line.  On its first day, almost 40,000 passengers were carried between Paddington and Farringdon, the journey taking 18 minutes.
Explanation:- nowhere it is written that people were more than predicted (already thought).

  • The use of ventilation shafts failed to prevent pollution in the tunnels.

True – Sixth Paragrah, Fifth line to last line. The line used specially designed locomotives that were fitted with water tanks in which steam could be condensed. However, smoke and fumes remained a problem, even though ventilation shafts were added to the tunnels.

Explanation:- Smoke and fumes remained (persisted) despite ventilation shafts in tunnel. It means shafts were failed to stop pollution in tunnels.

  1. A different approach from the ‘cut and cover’ technique was required in London’s central area.

True – Seventh Paragraph, Second line to last line. The problem was partly that that the existing underground lines formed a circuit around the centre of London and extended to the suburbs, but did not cross the capital’s centre. The ‘cut and cover’ method of construction was not an option in this part of the capital. The only alternative was to tunnel deep underground.  

Explanation:- The ‘cut and cover’ method of construction was not an option means this method could not be used.

  1. The windows on City & South London trains were at eye level.

False – Eighth Paragraph, Sixth line. The carriages were narrow and had tiny windows just  below the roof because it was thought that passengers would not want to look out at the tunnels walls.

Explanation:- Windows were just below the train’s roof. It means above the eye level.

  1. The City & South London Railway was a financial success.

False  – Eighth Paragraph, Eighth line . Although the city & South London Railway was a great technical achievement, it did not make a profit.

Explanation:- Financial success means earning a lot of money. But it was not true.

  1. Trains on the ‘Tuppenny Tube’ nearly always ran on time.

Not Given  Eighth Paragraph, last three lines. The Central London Railway, known as the ‘Tuppenny Tube’, began operation using new electric locomotives. It was very popular and soon afterwards new railways and extensions were added to growing tube networks.

Explanation:- There is nothing about time.

Reading Passage 2:Stadiums: past, present, and future

Which section contain the following information?

  1. a mention of negative attitudes towards stadium building projects.

– A paragraph’s second part full. Today, however, stadiums are regarded with growing scepticism. Construction costs can soar above 1 billion, and stadiums finished for major events such as the Olympic Games or the FIFA World Cup have notably fallen into disuse and disrepair. Vocabulary :- Scepticism – doubt as to the truth of something

Explanation:- The meaning of these lines is that billions are spent on making these stadium, which are used only for one big event, and after that, there is no use of them, and even, they are not repaired. These are negative points for stadiums.

  1. figures demonstrating the environmental benefits of a certain stadium.

F – F Pragraph’s second part’s first line to fifth line. Freiburg Mage Solar Stadium in Germany is the first of new wave of stadiums as power plants, which also includes the Amsterdam Arena and the Kaohsiung Stadium. The latter, inaugurated in 2009, has         8,844 photovoltaic panels producing up to 1.14 GWh of electricity annually. This reduces the annual output of carbon dioxide by 660 tons and supplies up to 80 percent of the surrounding area when the stadium is not in use.

Explanation:- Environmental benefits: 1.14 GWh of electricity is produced annually from the solar system at Kaohsiung Stadium, which reduces 660 tons of carbon dioxide emission. Figures: 1.14 GHW & 660 tons.

  1. examples of the wide range of facilities available at some new stadiums.

– paragraph’s second part full paragraph and first line from third paragraph. There’s a growing trend for stadiums to be equipped with public spaces and services that serve a function beyond sport, such as hotels, retail outlets, conference centres, restaurants and bars, children’s playgrounds and green space. Creating mixed-use developments such as this reinforces compactness and multi – functionality, making more efficient use of land helping to regenerate urban spaces.

Explanation:- The wide range of facilities: hotels, retail outlets, conference centres, restaurants, bars, children’s playgrounds and green space.

  1. reference to the disadvantages of the stadiums built during a certain era.

 D – D Paragraph’s second line to the last line. But some of the flexibility was lost at the beginning of the 20th century, as stadiums were developed using new products such as steel and reinforced concrete, and made use of bright lights for night-time matches. Many such stadiums are situated in suburban areas, designed for sporting use only and surrounded by parking lots. These factors mean that they may not be as accessible to the general public

Explanation:- Certain era: 20th century. Disadvantages:- 1. Due to the use of steel and concrete, the stadiums were not easy to change as intended. 2. Designed for sporting only so not accessible to the general public.

Complete the summary below.

Roman amphitheatres

  1. The amphitheatre of Arles, for example, was converted first into a………………, then into a residential area

fortress – B paragraph’s first three line. The amphitheatre of Arles in Southwest France, with a capacity of 25,000 spectators, is perhaps the best example of just how versatile stadium can be. Built by the Romans in 90 AD, it became a fortress with four towers after the fifth century,

  1. and finally into an arena where spectators could watch……………… .

bullfights – B paragraph’s first part’s last three lines. With the growing interest in conservation during the 19th century, it was converted back into an arena for the staging of bullfights, thereby returning the structure to its original use as a venue for public spectacles.

  • Meanwhile, the arena in Verona, one of the oldest Roman amphitheatres, is famous today as a venue where……………… performed.

opera –  B paragraph’s second part’s last two lines It has endured the centuries and is currently considered one of the world’s prime sites for opera

  • The site of Lucca’s amphitheatre has also been used for many

purposes over the centuries, including the storage of…………………………..

salt – C paragraph from third line.  The site (centre of the Italian Town of Lucca) evolved in a similar way to Arles and was progressively filled with buildings from the Middle Ages until the 19th century, variously used as houses, a salt depot and a prison.

Explanation:- Depot = Storage

  • It is now a market square with…………………….and homes incorporated into the remains of the Roman amphitheatre.

shops – C Paragraph’s last two line. Today, the ruins of the amphitheatre remain embedded in the various shops and residences surrounding the public square.

Choose TWO letters, A-E

     23&24 When comparing twentieth–century stadiums to ancient amphitheatre in Section D, which TWO negative features does the writer mention?

C –  They are in less convenient location. D paragraph’s last three line. Many such stadiums are situated in suburban areas, designed for sporting use only and surrounded       by parking lots. These factors mean that they may not be as accessible to the general public.

Explanation:- Because of stadiums surrounded by car parks, they might not accessible to the public. 

D – They are less versatile. D paragraph’s second & third line. But some of the flexibility was lost at the beginning of the 20th century, as stadiums were developed using new products such as steel and reinforced concrete,

Explanation:- The use of steel and concrete reduced the flexibility(Versatility) of changing the structure of stadiums. 

    25&26. Which TWO advantages of modern stadium design does the writer mention?  

B – bringing community life back into the city environment. E paragraph’s third part’s first two line.  This opens the space up to families and wider cross-section of society, instead of catering only to sportspeople and supporters.

Explanation:- for more clarification, please read the second part of the E paragraph. Rest is clear I think😉

E – providing a suitable site for the installation of renewable power generators. F paragraph’s first paragraph’s last three line. Stadiums are ideal for these purposes (power stations), because their canopies have large surface area for fitting photovoltaic panels (Solar Panels) and rise high enough (more than 40 metres) to make use of micro wind turbines.

Reading Passage 3:To catch a king

  • Charles II then formed a ……………………with the Scots, and in order to become King of Scots,

H – strategic alliance, First paragraph’s fifth line to ninth line. After his father was executed by the parliamentarians in 1649, the young Charles II sacrificed one of the very principles his father had died for and did a deal with the Scots,

Explanation:- Deal = an agreement entered into by two or more parties for their mutual benefit. Alliance= a union or association formed for mutual benefit

  • he abandoned an important……………………. that was held by his father

and had contributed to his father’s death.

J – religious conviction, First paragraph 7th line to 11th line. Charles II sacrificed one of the very principles his father had died for and did a deal with the Scots, thereby accepting Presbyterianism as the national religion in return for being crowned King of Scots.

Explanation:- Principle =  proposition that serves as the foundation for a system of belief or behavior. Conviction = a firmly held belief or opinion. Presbyterianism =  part of the reformed Protestant religion.

Further explanation:- Charles II’s father had religious principles for what her died, but Charles II abandoned those principles by accepting Presbyterianism.

  • The battle led to a………………..for the Parliamentarians and Charles had to flee for his life.

F – decisive victory, First paragraph’s 8th line to 12th line from the bottom.  After being comprehensively defeated on the meadows outside the city by the parliamentarian army, the 21-year-old king found himself the subject of a national manhunt

Explanation:- Parliamentarians comprehensively defeated the Charles and he had to flee. Charles’s defeat means parliamentarians’ victory.

  • A…………………….was offered for Charles’s capture, but after six weeks spent in hiding,

B – large reward, First paragraph’s 7th to 9th line from bottom. with a huge sum offered for his capture.    

Explanation:- Huge sum = Large reward

  • he eventually managed to reach the…………………….of continental Europe.

D – relative safety. First paragraph’s 3rd  to 7th line from bottom. Over the following six weeks he managed, through a series of heart-poundingly close escapes, to evade the Parliamentarians before seeking refuge in France.

Explanation:- Refuge = a condition of being safe or sheltered from pursuit, danger, or trouble.

Yes/No/Not given

     32.Charles chose Pepys for the task because he considered him to be trustworthy.

Not given – second paragraph’s first to sixth line. Years later, after his restoration as king,  the 50-year-old Charles II requested a meeting with the writer and diarist Samuel Pepys. His intention when asking Pepys to commit his story to paper was ensure that this most extraordinary episode was never forgotten.

Explanation:- These lines do not explain whether Pepys was trustworthy or not, and he just want to ensure him to write important episode of his life.    

  • Charles’s personal recollection of the escape lacked sufficient detail.

No – Second paragraph’s 7th  to 9th line. Over two three-hour sittings, the king related to him in great detail his personal recollections of the six weeks he had spent as fugitive.

Explanation:- The king told him his personal recollections in a great detail.

  • Charles indicated to Pepys that he had planned his escape before the battle.

No – second paragraph’s last four line. After the battle was so absolutely lost as to be beyond hope of recovery, I began to think of the best way of saving myself.

Explanation:- Charles decided to escape when he realized that winning the war was not possible for him.

  • The inclusion of Charles’s account is a positive aspect of the book.

 Yes – third paragraph’s first line to fourth line. One of the joys of Spencer’s book, a result not least of its use of Charles II’s own narrative as well as those of his supporters, is just how close the reader gets to the action.

Explanation:- The book makes readers feel that they are spectators of the actions (events). In simple language, they feel that they are seeing those events happening in reality, which is joyous.

Choose the correct letter A,B,C and D

  • What is the reviewer’s main purpose in the first paragraph?

B – to give an account of the circumstances leading to Charles II’s escape. first paragraph’s twelfth line to twenty-first line. His arrival in Edinburgh prompted the English Parliamentary army to invade Scotland in a pre-emptive strike. This was followed by a Scottish invasion of England. The two sides finally faced one another at Worcester in the west of England in 1651. After being comprehensively defeated on the meadows outside the city by the parliamentarian army the 21-year-old king found himself the subject of a national manhunt.

Explanation:- From his return to Scotland, he was attacked by the British, and then Charles II had to escape because he was defeated in the war. So, the paragraph tells all about the reasons why he had to run after the war.

  • Why does the reviewer include examples of the fugitives’ behavior in the third paragraph?

C – to illustrate how the events of six weeks are brought to life. Third paragraph’s last seven line. Spencer draws out both the humour – such as the preposterous refusal of Charles’s friend Henry Wilmot to adopt disguise on the grounds that it was beneath his dignity – and the emotional tension when the secret of the king’s presence was cautiously revealed to his supporters.

Explanation:- The reviewer wants to illustrate how to make the story more realistic (brought to life) the book includes the behaviour of the king and his companions.

  • What point does the reviewer makes about Charles II in the fourth paragraph?

A –He chose to celebrate what was essentially a defeat. Fourth paragraph’s eleventh line to last line. This makes it all the more interesting that Charles II himself loved the story ever after. As well as retelling it to anyone who would listen, causing eye-rolling among courtiers, he set in train a series of initiatives to memorialize it……. A series of enormous oil paintings depicting the episode were produced, including a two-metre-wide canvas of Boscobel Wood and a set of six similarly enormous paintings of the king on the run. In 1660, Charles II commissioned the artist John Michael Wright to paint a flying squadron of cherubs carrying an oak tree to the heavens on the ceilings of his bedchamber. It is hard to imagine many other kings marking the lowest point in their life so enthusiastically, or indeed pulling off such an escape in the first place.

Explanation:- Charles II got the episodes of his run painted in numerous ways. He was escaping for his life during that time, which was his life’s low point. Instead of hiding it, he depicted it in several artistic ways.  

  • What does the reviewer say about Charles Spencer in the fifth paragraph?

B – He takes an unbiased approach to the subject matter, fifth paragraph’s fifth line to tenth line. He has even-handed sympathy for both the fugitive king and the fierce republican regime that hunted him, he succeeds in his desire to explore far more of the background of the story than previous books on the subject have done.

Explanation:- Even Handed – fair and impartial in treatment or judgment (Unbiased). Charles Spenser (the book writer) did not favour the king or his hunters (republican).

  • When the reviewer says the book ‘doesn’t quite hit the mark’, she is making the point that

D – It fails to address whether Charles II’s experiences had a lasting influence on him. Sixth paragraph is first line to tenth line. The tantalizing question left, in the end, is that of what it all meant. Would Charles II have been a different king had these six weeks never happened? The days and nights spent in hiding must have affected him in some way. Did the need to assume disguises, to survive on wit and charm alone, to use trickery and subterfuge to escape from tight corners form him? This is the one area   where the book doesn’t quite hit the mark.

Explanation: – The book did not answer questions like whether this incident brought some changes in his life and character or not. So, this area is not discussed in the book.



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