Reading Passage 1:Let’s Go Bats

Questions 1-4: (Identifying information):

[This question asks you to find information from the passage and write the number of the paragraph (A, B, C or D … .. ) in the answer sheet. Now, if the question is given in the very first part of the question set, I would request you not to answer them. It’s mainly because this question will not follow any sequence, and so it will surely kill your time. Rather, you should answer all the other questions first. And just like List of Headings, only read the first two lines or last two lines of the expected paragraph initially. If you find the answers, you need not read the middle part. If you don’t find answers yet, you can skim the middle part of the paragraph. Keywords will be a useful matter here.]

Question 1: examples of wildlife other than bats which do not rely on vision to navigate by   

Keywords for the question: wildlife other than bats, do not rely on, vision, to navigate

In paragraph B, the author says in lines 3-4, “Obviously, the night-flying insects that they prey on must find their way about somehow. Deep-sea fish and whales have little or no light by day or by night. Fish and dolphins that live in extremely muddy water cannot see because, although there is light, it is obstructed and scattered”

Here, the writer talks about other insects and animals which don’t depend on eyesight, e.g. night flying insects, Deep-sea fish and whales, fish and dolphins who don’t depend on vision to navigate by.

So, the answer is: B

Question 2: how early mammals avoided dying out

Keywords for the question: early mammals, avoided, dying out,

In paragraph A, the author mentions in lines 8-11, “In the time when the dinosaurs dominated the daytime economy, our mammalian ancestors probably only managed to survive at all because they found ways of scraping a living at night.”

Here, our mammalian ancestors = early mammals, managed to survive = avoided dying out,

So, the answer is: A

Question 3:  why bats hunt in the dark

Keywords for the question: why, bats hunt, dark,    

In paragraph A, the author says in lines 5-6, “Given that there is a living to be made at night, and given that alternative daytime trades are thoroughly occupied, natural selection has favored bats that make a go of the night-hunting trade.

The lines suggest that nature has favoured by selecting bats to go for a hunt at night time. It means bats are naturally night-hunters.

So, the answer is: A   

Question 4:  how a particular discovery has helped our understanding of bats

Keywords for the question: particular discovery, helped, understanding, bats,   

In paragraph E, the writer talks about the discovery of SONAR in lines 6-9, ” the underlying mathematical theories of radar and sonar are very similar; and much of our scientific understanding of the details of what bats are doing has come from applying radar theory to them.” 

So, the answer is: E

Question 5:  early military uses of echolocation

Keywords for the question: early military use, echolocation,    

In Paragraph D, lines 12-14 talk about the use of ‘echolocation’/ sonar/ radar in The Second World War. “.. .. . . Both sides in the Second World War relied heavily on these devices, under such codenames as Asdic (British) and Sonar (American), as well as Radar (American) or RDF (British), which uses radio echoes rather than sound echoes.”

So, the answer is: D

Questions 6-9: (Summary completion)

(In this kind of question candidates are given a summary for one, two or three paragraphs with some fill in the blanks questions. Candidates need to find out the related paragraphs by correctly studying the keywords form the questions. Then, they should follow the steps of finding answers to fill in the gaps.)

The title of the summary: Facial Vision

Blind people report that so-called ‘facial vision’ is comparable to the sensation of touch on theface. In fact, the sensation is more similar to the way in which pain from a 6. ________ arm or leg might be felt. The ability actually comes from perceiving 7. ________ through the ears. However, even before this was understood, the principle had been applied in the design of instruments which calculated the 8. _________ of the seabed. This was followed by a wartime application in devices for finding 9. _________ .

All the answers are found in paragraph D.

Question 6: Blind people report that so-called ‘facial vision’ is comparable to the sensation of touch on theface. In fact, the sensation is more similar to the way in which pain from a ________ arm or leg might be felt.

Keywords for the question: blind people, facial vision, sensation of touch, more similar to, pain, arm or leg, might be felt,     

In paragraph D lines 6-7, the writer says, “Experiments showed that, in fact, facial vision is nothing to do with touch or the front of the face, although the sensation may be referred to the front of the face, like the referred pain in a phantom limb.”

Here, may be referred to = more similar to, limb = arm or leg,

So, the answer is: phantom

Question 7: The ability actually comes from perceiving _________ through the ears.

Keywords for the question: ability, actually, comes from, perceiving, through, ears,  

In paragraph D lines 8-9, the author says, “The sensation of facial vision, it turns out, really goes in through the ears. Blind people, without even being aware of the fact, are actually using echoes of their own footsteps and of other soundsto sense the presence of obstacles.”

Here, actually using / to sense the presence of = perceiving,  

So, the answer is: echoes/ obstacles

Question 8: However, even before this was understood, the principle had been applied in the design of instruments which calculated the _________ of the seabed.

Keywords for the question: before, this was understood, principle, applied, design of instruments, calculated, of the seabed,

In paragraph D lines 9-11 the writer says, “Before this was discovered, engineers had already built instruments to exploit the principle, for example, to measure the depth of the sea under a ship.”

Here, measure = calculated, sea under a ship = seabed,  

So, the answer is: depth

Question 9: This was followed by a wartime application in devices for finding _________ .

Keywords for the question: followed, by, wartime, application, devices, for finding,

In paragraph D lines 11-12, the writer states, “After this technique had been invented, it was only a matter of time before weapons designers adapted it for the detection of submarines.”

Here, weapon designers adapted = wartime application, detection = finding,  

So, the answer is: submarines

Questions 10-13: (Completing sentences with NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS)

[For this type of question, candidates need to complete the sentences with NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage. Candidates need to look for keywords in the sentence-beginnings and find the relative paragraphs and then sentences in the passage. Skimming and scanning, both reading skills are essential for this question-type.]

Question 10: Long before the invention of radar, ___________ had resulted in a sophisticated radar-like system in bats.

Keywords for the question: long before, invention, radar, resulted, sophisticated, radar-like system, bats,  

In paragraph E lines 1-3, the author mentions, “The Sonar and Radar pioneers didn’t know it then, but all the world now knows that bats, or rather natural selection working on bats, had perfected the system tens of millions of years earlier; and their ‘radar’ achieves feats of detection and navigation that would strike an engineer dumb with admiration.”

Here, millions of years earlier = long before, The Sonar and Radar pioneers didn’t know it then = before the invention of radar, had perfected = had resulted, the system = radar-like system,

So, the answer is: natural selection

Question 11: Radar is an inaccurate term when referring to bats because __________ are not used in their navigation system.

Keywords for the question: Radar, inaccurate term, referring to, bats, because, not used in, navigation system,   

Again, in paragraph E lines 4-5, the writer mentions, “It is technically incorrect to talk about bat ‘radar’, since they do not use radio waves.”

Here, technically incorrect = an inaccurate term, talk about bat = when referring to bats, since = because,

In this passage, radio waves also refer to echoes.

So, the answer is: radio waves/ echoes

Question 12: Radar and sonar are based on similar ___________.

Keywords for the question: Radar and sonar, based on, similar,

In paragraph E lines 5-6, the author says, “.. . . . But the underlying mathematical theories of radar and sonar are very similar; .. . … .”

So, the answer is: mathematical theories

Question 13: The word ‘echolocation’ was first used by someone working as a ___________.

Keywords for the question: ‘echolocation’, first used by, working, as a,

In paragraph E lines 7-9, the writer says, “The American zoologist Donald Griffin, who was largely responsible for the discovery of sonar in bats, coined the term ‘echolocation‘ to cover both sonar and radar; . . . ..  .”

Here, coined the term = first used,  

So, the answer is: zoologist


Questions 14-20 (List of headings):

[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc,). A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections. So, some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph that will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.

TIPS: Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly and don’t stop until you finish each sentence. ]

Question 14: Paragraph A

In the first lines of paragraph A, the writer says, “The history of human civilisation is entwined with the history of the ways we have learned to manipulate water resources.”

Then in lines 4-7, the writer mentions, “At the height of the Roman Empirenine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.”

Here, the Roman Empire, nine major systems = ancient water supplies,

So, the answer is: xi (A description of ancient water supplies)

Question 15: Paragraph C

Paragraph C narrates the dangers to physical condition as the result of a shortage of pure water. The writer mentions in lines 4-7, “.. … . . more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water: some two and half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, .. . .. . .”

So, the answer is: vii (the relevance to health)

Question 16: Paragraph D

Paragraph D details about the environmental effects of water-shortage.

In lines 4-7 the writer mentions, “. . .. … . more than 20% of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity.”

So, the answer is: v (Environmental effects)

Question 17: Paragraph E

In paragraph E, take a look at the following sentences.

“. .. … however, the resource planners think about water is beginning to change.” (lines 1-2).

The focus is slowly shifting back to the provision of basic human and environmental needs as top priority – .. ..” (lines 2-3)

“Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities,. .. ..” (lines 4-5)

Here, resource planners/water experts = scientists, demanding = call, beginning to change/slowly shifting back, existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways = revision of policy,

So, the answer is: i (Scientists’ call for a revision of policy)

Question 18: Paragraph F

In paragraph F, take a close look at the following sentences.   

In lines 1-2 the writer mentions, “Fortunately – and unexpectedly – the demand for water is not rising as rapidly as some predicted.”

Then, in lines 3-5, the writer says, “Although population, industrial output, and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lacks has slowed.”

Here, unexpectedly = surprising, the rate.. .. has slowed = downward trend,

So, the answer is: ix (A surprising downward trend in demand for water)

Question 19: Paragraph G

Paragraph G opens with this question, “What explains this remarkable turn of events?”

This suggests that the author will give an explanation of the reasons behind this reduced use of water.

In lines 1-2 the writer mentions, “Two factors: people have figured out how to use water more efficiently, and communities are rethinking their priorities for water use.”

This means that there are two reasons behind reduced water use; first, people have found out ways to use water efficiently, and second, communities now think twice about their priorities for how to use water.

So, the answer is: ii (An explanation for reduced water use)

Question 20: Paragraph H

In paragraph H, we find that the writer feels the need to raise standards in use of water and planning for better infrastructure, “On the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be builtparticularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to smaller budget.”

Here, higher specifications = raise standards,

So, the answer is: (The need to raise standards)

Questions 21-26 (YES, NO, NOT GIVEN)

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches the claim of the writer in the text- YESThe statement in the question contradicts the claim of the writer in the text- NOThe statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN

[TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question 21: Water use per person is higher in the industrial world than it was in Ancient Rome.

Keywords for this question: water use, per person, higher, industrial world, Ancient Rome,

The last lines of paragraph A give us the answer to this question. The writer says here, “At the height of the Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.

Here, as much water per person . .. . . as is provided.. .. today means the supply of water is not higher; it is rather equal.

So, the answer is: NO

Question 22: Feeding increasing populations is possible due primarily to improved irrigation systems.

Keywords for this question: feeding, increasing populations, possible, due to, improved irrigation system,

In paragraph B the writer says in lines 5-7, “Food production has kept pace with soaring populations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation systems that make possible the growth of 40% of the world’s food.”

Here, soaring = increasing, because of = due primarily to, artificial irrigation systems = improved irrigation systems,

So, the answer is: YES

Question 23: Modern water systems imitate those of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

Keywords for this question: modern water systems, imitate, ancient Greeks and Romans,

In paragraph C the writer says in lines 2-3, “.. . … half of the world’s population still suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans.”

However, we do not find any information that says modern water systems are a copied version of the Ancient Greek and Roman water systems.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 24: Industrial growth is increasing the overall demand for water.

Keywords for this question: industrial growth, increasing, overall demand, water,  

In paragraph F the writer argues in lines 3-5, “.. .. . Although population, industrial output and economic productivity have continued to soar in developed nations, the rate at which people withdraw water from aquifers, rivers and lakes has slowed.”

Here, the rate . .. . has slowed = demand of water is decreasing.

Therefore, the lines directly contradict the information provided in question 24.

So, the answer is: NO

Question 25: Modern technologies have led to reduction in the domestic water consumption.

Keywords for this question: modern technologies, led to, reduction, domestic water consumption,   

In paragraph G the author states in lines 5-7, “.. . . . But since 1980, the amount of water consumed per person has actually decreasedthanks to a range of new technologies that help to conserve water in homes and industry.”

Here, thanks to a range of new technologies = modern technologies have led to,

Therefore, the lines directly match with the statement in question 25.  

So, the answer is: YES

Question 26: In the future, governments should maintain ownership of water infrastructures.

Keywords for this question: future, governments, should maintain, ownership, water infrastructures,

Information relating to government and water infrastructures can only be traced in paragraphs H and E.

In paragraph E, the writer only says: “Some water experts are now demanding that existing infrastructure be used in smarter ways rather than building new facilities.” There is no discussion about ownership whatsoever. 

In paragraph H:  “…dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructure will still have to be built….”.  But again there is a clear indication of ownership here. Therefore, the sentences lack information about whether governments should maintain ownership of water infrastructures or not.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Reading Passage 3: The headline of the passage: EDUCATING PSYCHE

Questions 27-30: Multiple choice questions

[This type of question asks you to choose a suitable answer from the options using the knowledge you gained from the passage. Generally, this question is found as the last question so you should not worry much about it. Finding all the answers to previous questions gives you a good idea about the title.]

Question 27: The book Educating Psyche is mainly concerned with –

Keywords for this question: book, Educating Psyche, mainly, concerned with,  

The first line of paragraph no. 1 gives us the answer to this question, “Educating Psyche by Bernie Neville is a book which looks at radical new approaches to learning, describing the effects of emotion, imagination and the unconscious on learning.”

The answer can also be traced from paragraph no. 3 line no. 4-5, where the writer says, “. . .. . In suggestopedia, as he called his method, consciousness is shifted away from the curriculum. . .. . .”

Here, radical new approaches to learning = ways of learning which are not traditional, shifted away from the curriculum = out of traditional ways,

So, the answer is: D (ways of learning which are not traditional)

Question 28: Lozanov’s theory claims that then we try to remember things, –

Keywords for this question: Lozanov’s theory, claims, we try to remember things,

Take a look at paragraph no. 2 where the writer states, “Lozanov’s instructional technique is based on the evidence that the  connections made in the brain through unconscious processing are more durable than those made through conscious processing.”

Then he maintains to elucidate more about the theory  “ …we know from our experience that we often remember what we have perceived peripherally, long after we have forgotten what we set out to learn.”

Here, what we have perceived peripherally = unimportant details,

So, the answer is: (unimportant details are the easiest to recall.)

Question 29: In this passage, the author uses the examples of a book and a lecture to illustrate that –

Keywords for this question: examples of a book and a lecture,

Again, take a look at paragraph no. 2, line no. 6-11 where the writer states, “.. . .. . If we think of a book we studied months or years ago, we find it easier to recall peripheral details… . .. than the content on which we were concentrating. If we think of a lecture we listened to with great concentration, we will recall the lecturer’s appearance and mannerism.. .. . .much more easily than the ideas we went to learn.”

These examples provided by the writer indicate that we remember insignificant things more easily than we remember things we aim to learn.  This supports Lozanov’s theory. Therefore, these examples agree with the idea that his theory is valid.

So, the answer is: (his theory about methods of learning is valid.)

Question 30: Lozanov claims that teachers should train students to –

Keywords for this question: Lozanov claims, teachers should, train students, 

In lines 3-6 of paragraph no. 3, the writer maintains, “Lozanov, therefore, made indirect instruction (suggestion) central to his teaching system. In suggestopedia, as he called his method, consciousness is shifted away from the curriculum to focus on something peripheral. The curriculum then become peripheral and is dealt with by the reserve capacity of the brain.”

These lines indicate that he suggests making the curriculum unimportant by focusing on something else, in order to bear in mind the curriculum better.

So, the answer is: (think about something other than the curriculum content.)

Questions 31-36: TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question agrees with the information in the passage – TRUE
The statement in the question contradicts the information in the passage – FALSE
If there is no information on this  – NOT GIVEN

For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question 31: In the example of suggestopedic teaching in the fourth paragraph, the only variable that changes is the music.

Keywords for this question: suggestopedic teaching, fourth paragraph, only variable, changes, music,

In paragraph no. 4, the writer states, “… In the first part, the music is classical and the teacher reads the text slowly and solemnly, with attention to the dynamic of the music.”

In the second part, they listen to baroque music while the teacher reads the text in a normal speaking voice.”

Moreover, the paragraph also informs us that in the initial part, students “follow the text in their books…. .” but in the second part “… they have their books closed.”

So, music is not the only variable that changes, their reading styles also change.

So, the answer is: FALSE

Question 32: Prior to the suggestopedia class, students are made aware that the language experience will be demanding.

Keywords for this question: prior to, suggestopedia class, students, made aware, language experience, will be demanding,

In paragraph no. 5, the author states, “ . . . Beforehand, the students have been carefully prepared for the language learning experience.  Through meeting with the staff and satisfied students they develop the expectation that learning will be easy and pleasant…”

Here, Beforehand Prior tolearning will be easy and pleasant learning will not be demanding,

The lines indicate that the students believe that the language experience will not require much effort or will not be so demanding.

So, the answer is: FALSE

Question 33: In the follow-up class, the teaching activities are similar to those used in conventional classes.

Keywords for this question: follow-up class, teaching activities, similar to, conventional classes,

In paragraph no. 6, the writer states, “. . . .There is a follow-up class at which the students are stimulated to recall the material presented.  The students… . . ..  focus on using the language to communicate (e.g. through games or improvised dramatisations).  Such methods are not unusual in language teaching.

Here, teaching activities = methods, not unusual similar to,

Therefore, the statement is a clear match to the question.

So, the answer is: TRUE

Question 34: As an indirect benefit, students notice improvements in their memory.

Keywords for this question: indirect benefit, students notice, improvements, memory,

Information speaking about the ‘benefit’ of the method for students only originates in paragraph no. 6.

However, the writer only states in the last lines of paragraph no. 6 that the students can learn more words: “ ..  …students can regularly learn 1000 new words of a foreign language during a suggestopedic session.”

Nothing is cited about any benefit to the memory of students.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 35: Teachers say they prefer suggestopedia to traditional approaches to language teaching.

Keywords for this question: teachers say, prefer, suggestopedia, to traditional approaches, language teaching,

Only paragraph no. 6 and the last paragraph inform us about suggestopedia and traditional approaches. However, in paragraph no. 6 we find out only the job of the teacher in the suggestopedia approach.  In the final paragraph, we learn that “…few teachers are able to emulate the spectacular results of Lozanov..” 

There is no clear reference to the exact approach or method of the teacher.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 36: Students in a suggestopedia class retain more new vocabulary than those in ordinary classes.

Keywords for this question: students, suggestopedia class, retain, more, new vocabulary, than, ordinary class,  

The last sentence of paragraph no. 6 says: “Another difference from conventional teaching is the evidence that students can regularly learn 1000 new words of a foreign language during a suggestopedic session, as well as grammar and idiom.” Therefore, the writer implies that this total of 1000 words is more than they would learn in an ordinary class.

Therefore, the statement is a clear match to the question.

So, the answer is: TRUE

Questions 37-40 (Completing summary with a list of words)

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to complete a summary with a list of words taken from the passage. Candidates must write the correct letter (not the words) as the answers. Keywords and synonyms are important to find answers correctly. Generally, this type of question maintains a sequence. Find the keywords in the passage and you are most likely to find the answers.]

Questions 37 and 38: Suggestopedia uses a less direct method of suggestion than other techniques such as hypnosis. However, Lozanov admits that a certain amount of 37. ___________ is necessary in order to convince students, even if this is just a 38. ___________.

Keywords for this question: suggestopedia, less direct method, than other techniques, hypnosis, Lozanov, admits, certain amount, necessary, to convince students, even, just,

The answers are found in paragraph no. 7, lines 5-8, “Lozanov acknowledges that the ritual surrounding suggestion in his own system is also a placebo, but maintains that without such a placebo people are unable or afraid to tap the reserve capacity of their brain. Like any placebo, it must be dispensed with authority to be effective.”

Here, acknowledges = admits,

So, the answers are:

  • (rituals)
  • (placebo)

Questions 39 and 40: Furthermore, if the method is to succeed, teachers must follow a set procedure. Although Lozanov’s method has become quite 39. ____________ , the result of most other teachers using this method have been 40. _____________.

Keywords for this question: furthermore, if, the method, to succeed, teachers must follow, set procedure, Lozanov’s methods, become, result, most other teachers, using this method,

The answers are found in Paragraph 8. This last paragraph starts with the writer saying, “While suggestopedia has gained some notoriety through success in the teaching of modern languages, few teachers are able to emulate the spectacular results of Lozanov and his associates.”

Here, notoriety = well-known (in a bad way),

So, the author explains to us that even though Lozanov’s method is successful/well known, the results obtain by most of the teachers using his system have not been very good/spectacular. Here we need 2 adjectives, one to describe Lozanov’s ‘method’, and the other for ‘the results.’

So, the answers are:

  • (well known)
  • (unspectacular)



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