Reading Passage 1: Pulling strings to build pyramids

Questions 1-7: TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the account in the text- TRUE
The statement in the question contradicts the account in the text- FALSE
The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN

[For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question 1: It is generally believed that large numbers of people were needed to build the pyramids.

Keywords for the question: generally believed, large numbers of people, needed, build the pyramids,   

At the beginning of paragraph no. 1 the writer says, “The pyramids of Egypt were built more than three thousand years ago, and no one knows how. The conventional picture is that tens of thousands of slavesdragged stones on sledges.”

Here, the conventional picture = generally believed, tens of thousands of slaves = large numbers of people,

So, the answer is: TRUE

Question 2: Clemmons found a strange hieroglyph on the wall of an Egyptian monument.

Keywords for the question: Clemmons, found, strange hieroglyph, wall, Egyptian monument,  

In paragraph no. 1, lines 7-9, the writer mentions, “While perusing a book on the monuments of Egypt, she noticed a hieroglyph that showed a row of men standing in odd postures.” 

Here, odd postures = strange postures, noticed = found,

So, the hieroglyph was found in a book, not in a wall.

So, the answer is: FALSE

Question 3:  Gharib had previously done experiments on bird flight.

Keywords for the question: Gharib, previously, experiments, bird flight,    

The reference to Morteza Gharib is found in paragraph no. 2. However, there is no mention of whether he previously did experiments on bird flight or not.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN       

Question 4:  Gharib and Graff tested their theory before applying it.

Keywords for the question: Gharib and Graff, tested, theory, before, applying,

Paragraph no. 3 presents details about how Gharib and Graff prepared for some experiments to test their theory and paragraph no. 4 shows the results of those experiments. Here, in paragraph no. 3, take a look at lines 2-4, “Their initial calculations and scale-model wind-tunnel experiments convinced them they wouldn’t need a strong wind to lift the 33.5-tonne column.”

This means they did experiments on their theory before applying it.

So, the answer is: TRUE

Question 5:  The success of the actual experiment was due to the high speed of the wind.

Keywords for the question: success, actual experiment, due to, high speed, wind,      

The answer can be found in lines 1-2 of paragraph no. 5. The writer says here, “The wind was blowing at a gentle 16 to 20 kilometres an hour, little more than half what they thought would be needed.”

Here, little more than half what they thought would be needed means the wind had a speed of a little more than half of what they thought would be needed.

So, it was the low speed of wind, not the high speed of wind what gave the experiment a success.

So, the answer is: FALSE

Question 6: They found that, as the kite flew higher, the wind force got stronger.

Keywords for the question: kite, flew, higher, wind force, got stronger,        

The result of the experiment with kites can be found in paragraph no. 5. There is no information about what happened when the kite flew higher or lower.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 7: The team decided that it was possible to use kites to raise very heavy stones.

Keywords for the question: team, decided, was possible, use kites, to raise, very heavy stones,        

Take a look at this line from paragraph no. 5, “ . .. . So Clemmons was right: the pyramid, builders could have used kites to lift massive stones into place.”

So, the researchers decided that it was possible to use kites to raise very heavy stones.

So, the answer is: TRUE

Questions 7-13: (Summary completion)

(In this kind of questions candidates are given a summary for one, two or three paragraphs with some fill in the blanks questions. Candidates need to find out the related paragraphs by correctly studying the keywords form the questions. Then, they should follow the similar steps of finding answers to fill in the gaps and write the correct answer.)

The title of the summary: Additional evidence for theory of kite-lifting

All the answers are found in paragraph no. 7 as the title of the summary says ‘Additional evidence’ and paragraph no. 7 starts with the sentence, “Others feel there is more of a case for the theory.”

Here, more of a case = additional evidence,  

Questions 8, 9 & 10: The Egyptians had 8. _________ which could lift large pieces of 9. _________ and they knew how to use the energy of the wind from their skill as 10. __________. 

Keywords for the question: Egyptians, had, could lift, large pieces of, knew, how to use, energy of the wind, their skill as,  

In paragraph no. 7, in lines 1-4, the author says, “ . .. .. Harnessing the wind would not have been a problem for accomplished sailors like the Egyptians. And they are known to have used wooden pulleys, which could have been made strong enough to bear the weight of massive blocks of stone.”

Here, massive blocks of = large pieces of,   

So, wooden pulleys were used to lift large pieces of stone.

Also, from their skill as indicates to the skill of the Egyptians as sailors.

So, the answers are:

  • (wooden) pulleys
  • stone
  • (accomplished) sailors

Questions 11 & 12: The discovery on one pyramid of an object which resembled a 11. ___________ suggests they may have experimented with 12. _________.  

Keywords for the question: discovery, one pyramid, an object, resembled, suggests, may have, experimented with,  

In lines 5-8 of the same paragraph, the author writes, “ . . .. A wooden artefact found on the step pyramid at Saqqara looks uncannily like a modern glider. Although it dates from several hundred years after the building of the pyramids, its sophistication suggests that the Egyptians might have been developing ideas of flight for a long time.”

Here, looks uncannily like = resembled, might have been developing ideas = may have experimented,

So, the answers are:

  1. (modern) glider
  2. flight

Questions 13: In addition, over two thousand years ago kites were used in China as weapons, as well as for sending 13. _________.

Keywords for the question: over two thousand years ago, kites, used, China, weapons, as well as, sending,   

In the last lines of this paragraph, the writer says, “ .. .. . And other ancient civilisations certainly knew about kites; as early as 1250 BC, the Chinese were using them to deliver messages and dump flaming debris on their foes.”  

Here, as early as 1250 BC = over two thousand years agokites were used … . as weapons = dump flaming debris on their foes, deliver = sending, So, the answer is: messages

Reading Passage 2: Endless Harvest

Questions 14-20: TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the account in the text- TRUEThe statement in the question contradicts the account in the text- FALSEThe statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN

[For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question 14: The inhabitants of the Aleutian islands renamed their islands ‘Aleyska’.

Keywords for the question: inhabitants, Aleutian islands, renamed, ‘Aleyska’,

Let’s take a look at the very beginning of the passage. In paragraph no. 1 we find some information about naming the islands. The author says here, “More than two hundred years ago, Russian explorers and fur hunters landed on the Aleutian Islands, a volcanic archipelago in the North Pacific, and learned of a land mass that lay farther to the north. ‘The islands’ native inhabitants called this land mass Aleyska, the ‘Great Land’; today, we know it as Alaska.”

From these lines, we can realise that native inhabitants of the islands named it (called) ‘Aleyska’. They did not rename it. Nowadays, we know it as ‘Alaska’, it’s newly named (renamed).

So, the answer is: FALSE

Question 15: Alaska’s fisheries are owned by some of the world’s largest companies.

Keywords for the question: Alaska’s fisheries, owned by, world’s largest companies,

Paragraph no. 2 talks about fisheries in Alaska; however, there is no information on the ownership of Alaska’s fisheries. The last lines of this paragraph only say, “ . .. Taking advantage of this rich bounty, Alaska’s commercial fisheries have developed into some of the largest in the world.”

So, it talks about the size of the commercial fisheries, not the ownership.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 16: Life in Alaska is dependent on salmon.

Keywords for the question: life, Alaska, dependent on, salmon,  

The answer lies in paragraph no. 3, lines 3-6, “ . . .. The true cultural heart and soul of Alaska’s fisheries, however, is salmon. ‘Salmon,’ notes writer Susan Ewing in The Great Alaska Nature Factbook, ‘pump through Alaska like blood through a heart, bringing rhythmic, circulating nourishment to land, animals, and people.”

The lines clearly match the statement in question no. 16.

So, the answer is: TRUE

Question 17: Ninety percent of all Pacific salmon caught are sockeye or pink salmon.

Keywords for the question: Ninety percent, all Pacific salmon caught, sockeye, pink salmon,

In paragraph no. 3, take a look at lines 8-10. The writer mentions, “ . . . . All five species of Pacific salmon – chinook, or king; chum, or dog; coho, or silver; sockeye, or red; and pink, or humpback – spawn** in Alaskan waters, and 90% of all Pacific salmon commercially caught in North America are produced there.”

Here, the writer says that 90% of all salmon caught commercially in North America comes from Alaska. It doesn’t mention about the percentage of particular types.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 18: More than 320,000 tonnes of salmon were caught in Alaska in 2000.

Keywords for the question: More than, 320,000 tonnes of salmon, caught, Alaska, 2000,

The last lines of paragraph no. 3 gives us information about the total weight of salmon caught in 2000 in Alaska, “ . … . During 2000, commercial catches of Pacific salmon in Alaska exceeded 320,000 tonnes, with an ex-vessel value of over $US 260 million.”

Here, exceeded = more than,

So, the answer is: TRUE

Question 19: Between 1940 and 1959, there was a sharp decrease in Alaska’s salmon population.

Keywords for the question: between 1940 and 1959, sharp decrease, Alaska’s, salmon population,

In the very beginning of paragraph no. 4, the writer says, “.. .. . Between 1940 and 1959, overfishing led to crashes in salmon populations so severe that in 1953 Alaska was declared a federal disaster area.”

Here, crashes in salmon populations so severe = there was a sharp decrease in Alaska’s salmon populations.

So, the answer is: TRUE

Question 20: During the 1990s, the average number of salmon caught each year was 100 million.

Keywords for the question: During, 1990s, average number of salmon, caught each year, 100 million,  

Take a look at the last few lines of paragraph no. 4, “ . . .. . . until, during the 1990s, annual harvests were well in excess of 100 million, and on several occasions over 200 million fish.”

Here, well in excess of = way over / way more than,

So, the answer is: FALSE

Questions 21-26 (Completing sentences with correct endings)

[For this type of question, candidates need to match the beginning and ending of sentences. Candidates need to look for keywords in the sentence-beginnings and find the relative paragraphs and then sentences in the passage. Skimming and scanning, both reading skills are essential for this question-type.]

Question 21: In Alaska, biologists keep a check on adult fish –

Keywords for the question: Alaska, biologists, check on, adult fish, 

In paragraph no. 5 the writer says, “.. … . There are biologists throughout the state constantly monitoring adult fish as they show up to spawn. The biologists sit in streamside counting towers, study sonar, watch from aeroplanes, and talk to fishermen. The salmon season in Alaska is not pre-set. The fishermen know the approximate time of year when they will be allowed to fish, but on any given day, one or more field biologists in a particular area can put a halt to fishing. Even sport fishing can be brought to a halt. It is this management mechanism that has allowed Alaska salmon stocks – and, accordingly, Alaska salmon fisheries — to prosper, . . .. .. .”

Here, the writer indicates that biologists keep monitoring adult salmons so that fish numbers can improve and fishing can be permitted on a large scale.  

So, the answer is: G (to ensure that fish numbers are sufficient to permit fishing.)

Question 22: Biologists have the authority –            

Keywords for this question: Biologists, authority,  

In paragraph no. 5, we can see the authority that biologists can apply on fishing. Take a look at lines 5-7, “ . .. but on any given day, one or more field biologists in a particular area can put a halt to fishing. Even sport fishing can be brought to a halt.”

Here, put a halt / can be brought to halt = to stop,

So, the answer is: (to stop people fishing for sports.)

Question 23: In-Season Abundance-Based Management has allowed the Alaska salmon fisheries –

Keywords for this question: In-season, Abundance-Based Management, allowed, Alaska salmon fisheries,  

Paragraph no. 5 starts citing about In-Season Abundance-Based Management. Then, in lines 7-8, the author says, “. . ..  .. It is this management mechanism that has allowed Alaska salmon stocks – and, accordingly, Alaska salmon fisheries — to prosper, .. . .”

Here, to prosper = to be successful,

So, the answer is: (to be successful.)

Question 24: The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) was established –

Keywords for this question: Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), established,   

In paragraph no. 6, lines 1-3 says, “In 1999, the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)*** commissioned a review of the Alaska salmon fishery. The Council, which was founded in 1996, certifies fisheries that meet high environmental standards, enabling them to use a label that recognises their environmental responsibility.”

Here, founded = established, certifies = to recognise, recognises their environmental responsibility = care for the environment,

So, the answer is: (to recognise fisheries that care for the environment.)

Question 25: As a result of the collapse of the salmon runs in 1999, the state decided –

Keywords for this question: As a result of, collapse, salmon, runs, 1999, state decided,   

In paragraph no. 7 we find the reference to the collapse of the salmon number in 1999, “Some observers thought the Alaska salmon fisheries would not have any chance of certification when, in the months leading up to MSC’s final decision, salmon runs throughout western Alaska completely collapsed.”  

Then in the next paragraph, the writer explained what happened as a result of this collapse, and in the last lines of this paragraph, the writer mentions, “. .. . However, the state reacted quickly, closing down all fisheries, even those necessary for subsistence purposes.”

So, the answer is: (to close down all fisheries.)

Question 26: In September 2000, the MSC allowed seven Alaska salmon companies –

Keywords for this question: September 2000, MSC, allowed, seven Alaska salmon companies,   

In the last paragraph, the first lines say, “In September 2000, MSC announced that the Alaska salmon fisheries qualified for certification. Seven companies producing Alaska salmon were immediately granted permission to display the MSC logo on their products.”

Here, granted permission = allowed, display = label,

So, the answer is: (to label their products using the MSC logo.)

Reading Passage 3: EFFECTS OF NOISE

Questions 27-29: Multiple choice questions

[This type of question asks you to choose a suitable answer from the options using the knowledge you gained from the passage. Generally, this question is found as the last question so you should not worry much about it. Finding all the answers to previous questions gives you a good idea about the title.]

Question 27: The writer suggests that people may have difficulty sleeping in the mountains because –

Keywords for this question: may have difficulty, sleeping, mountains, because,   

The writer says in lines 1-4 of paragraph no. 2-4, “ . . . . And yet most of us have had the experience of having to adjust to sleeping in the mountains or the countryside because it was initially ‘too quiet’, an experience that suggests that humans are capable of adapting to a wide range of noise levels.”

Here, humans = they, wide range of noise levels = higher noise level,

So, the answer is: D (they may have adapted to a higher noise level in the city.)

Question 28: In noise experiments, Glass and Singer found that –

Keywords for this question: noise experiments, Glass and Singer, 

In lines 7-8 of paragraph no. 1 the writer states, “The noise was quite disruptive at first, but after about four minutes the subjects were doing just as well on their tasks as control subjects who were not exposed to noise.”

This means that bursts of noise do not disrupt problem-solving ultimately (subjects were doing just as well on their tasks).

So, the answer is: (bursts of noise do not seriously disrupt problem-solving in the long run.)

Question 29: Researchers discovered that high noise levels are not likely to interfere with the –

Keywords for this question: Researchers, discovered, high noise levels, not likely, interfere with,

Take a look at paragraph no. 2, line no. 1-2 where the writer states, “But there are limits to adaptation and loud noise becomes more troublesome if the person is required to concentrate on more than one task.”

The lines suggest that there is a low chance of interference by high noise levels if a person is required to do one task. But if there is more than one task, the chance of interference becomes higher.

So, the answer is: (successful performance of a single task.)

Questions 30-34: (Completing summary with a list of words)

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to complete a summary with a list of words taken from the passage. Candidates must write the correct letter (not the words) as the answers. Keywords and synonyms are important to find answers correctly. Generally, this type of question maintains a sequence. Find the keywords in the passage and you are most likely to find the answers.]

Question 30: Glass and Singer (1972) showed that situations in which there is intense noise have less effect on performance than circumstances in which _____________ noise occurs.

Keywords for this question: Glass and Singer (1972), situations, intense noise, less effect, performance, than circumstances, noise occurs,

In lines 2-4 of paragraph no. 3, the writer describes, “. . . . . We are much more able to ‘tune out’ chronic background noise, even if it is quite loud, than to work under circumstances with unexpected intrusions of noise.”

Here, quite loud = intense,

So, the answer is: (unexpected)

Question 31: Subjects were divided into groups to perform a task. Some heard loud bursts of noise, others sort. For some subjects, the noise was predictable, while for others its occurrence was random. All groups were exposed to __________  noise. 

Keywords for this question: subjects, divided, perform a task, loud burst of noise, predictable, occurrence was random, all groups, exposed to,

In paragraph no. 3, the writer states in lines 6-8, “.. .. . For some subjects, the bursts were spaced exactly one minute apart (predictable noise); others heard the same amount of noise overall, but the bursts occurred at random intervals (unpredictable noise).”

The lines suggest that though for some subjects the bursts of noise were exactly at one-minute intervals and for others the intervals were random, the amount of noise was the same.

So, the answer is: (the same amount of)

Question 32: The predictable noise group ___________ the unpredictable noise group on this task.

Keywords for this question: predictable noise group, unpredictable noise group,

Again, in paragraph no. 3, the author states in lines 8-10, “ . . . Subjects reported finding the predictable and unpredictable noise equally annoying, and all subjects performed at about the same level during the noise portion of the experiment . .. .”  

So, the answer is: (performed at about the same level as)

Question 33: In the second part of the experiment, the four groups were given a proofreading task to complete under conditions of no noise. They were required to check written material for errors. The group which had been exposed to unpredictable noise ___________ the group which had been exposed to predictable noise. 

Keywords for this question: second part of the experiment, four groups, proofreading task, under conditions of no noise, check written material, errors, exposed to, unpredictable noise, predictable noise,

In paragraph no. 3, the writer talks about the second part of the experiment in lines 10-14, “. . . . But the different noise conditions had quite different after-effects when the subjects were required to proofread written material under conditions of no noise. As shown in Table 1 the unpredictable noise produced more errors in the later proofreading task than predictable noise; and soft, unpredictable noise actually produced slightly more errors on this task than the loud, predictable noise.”

Here, produced .. .. more errors = make more mistakes,  

So, the answer is: (made more mistakes than)

Question 34: The group which had been exposed to loud predictable noise performed better than those who had heard soft, unpredictable bursts. The results suggest that __________ noise produces fatigue but that this manifests itself later.

Keywords for this question: results suggest, noise, produces fatigue, manifests itself later,

In paragraph no. 4, the writer discusses the results found from the experiments in paragraph no. 3, “Apparently, unpredictable noise produces more fatigue than predictable noise, but it takes a while for this fatigue to take its toll on performance.”

Here, unpredictable = unexpected,

So, the answer is: (unexpected)

Questions 35-40 (Matching statements with the correct researchers)

(In this type of question, candidates need to relate statements which are given by or links to some researchers in the passage. The rules for finding answers to this sort of question are simple. Just find the name of the researchers and read around them carefully. Then, give a quick look to check whether there is another statement or idea provided by the same researchers in the text. If there is, check the reference carefully and decide your answer. Remember, the questions may not follow any sequential order.)

Question 35: Subjects exposed to noise find it difficult at first to concentrate on problem-solving tasks.

Keywords for this question: subjects, exposed to noise, difficult, concentrate, problem-solving tasks,

Have a look at paragraph no. 1 where the writer says in lines 5-7, “ . .. .. For example, Glass and Singer (1972) exposed people to short bursts of very loud noise and then measured their ability to work out problems and their physiological reactions to the noise. The noise was quite disruptive at first,. . .”

Here, disruptive = difficult to concentrate,

So, the answer is: (Glass and Singer)

Question 36: Long-term exposure to noise can produce changes in behaviour which can still be observed a year later.

Keywords for this question: long-term exposure, changes, behaviour, still be observed, a year later,

In the final paragraph the writer explains, “A follow-up study showed that children who were moved to less noisy classrooms still showed greater distractibility one year later than students who had always been in the quiet schools (Cohen et al, 1981).”

Here, one year = long-term exposure,

So, the answer is: (Cohen et al.)

Question 37: The problems associated with exposure to noise do not arise if the subject knows they can make it stop.

Keywords for this question: problems, exposure to noise, do not arise, if, subject knows, can make it stop,

In paragraph no. 5, we find the writer arguing that, “ .. . If the individual knows that he or she can control the noise, this seems to eliminate both its negative effect at the time and its after-effects. This is true even if the individual never actually exercises his or her option to turn the noise off (Glass and Singer, 1972).”

Here, control = stop,

So, the answer is: (Glass and Singer)

Question 38: Exposure to high-pitched noise results in more errors than exposure to low-pitched noise.

Keywords for this question: exposure to high-pitched noise, result in more errors, than, low-pitched noise,   

In paragraph no. 2, the writer explains the fact that it was found by Broadbent that loud noise becomes a problem, and we make more mistakes, when a person has to concentrate on more than one task. However, this gives us idea about the limit on how bad or how well we can adapt to exposure to loud noise.

We find no reference of any researchers about high-pitched noise gives birth to more noise.

So, the answer is: (None of the above)

Question 39: Subjects find it difficult to perform three tasks at the same time when exposed to noise.

Keywords for this question: subjects, difficult to perform, three tasks, same time, when, exposed to noise,

We can find this answer in paragraph no. 2. Here, in lines 2-4, the writer states, “ . .. . For example, high noise levels interfered with the performance of subjects who were required to monitor three dials at a time, a task not unlike that of an aeroplane pilot or an air-traffic controller (Broadbent, 1957).”

Here, required to monitor three dials at a time = perform three tasks at the same time,

So, the answer is: (Broadbent)

Question 40: Noise affects a subject’s capacity to repeat numbers while carrying out another task.

Keywords for this question: noise affects, subject’s capacity, to repeat numbers, while, another task,  

Again, in paragraph no. 2, the author writes in lines 5-7, “ . .. . Similarly, noise did not affect a subject’s ability to track a moving line with a steering wheel, but it did interfere with the subject’s ability to repeat numbers while tracking (Finkelman and Glass, 1970).”

Here, tracking = carrying out another task,

So, the answer is: (Finkelman and Glass)



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